Ambient yeast
The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation. The more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness. Sometimes winemakers will stop fermentation early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine such as with dessert wines. This can be achieved by dropping fermentation temperatures to the point where the yeast are inactive, sterile filtering the wine to remove the yeast or fortification with brandy to kill off the yeast cells. If fermentation is unintentionally stopped, such as when the yeasts become exhausted of available nutrients, and the wine has not yet reached dryness this is considered a stuck fermentation.
The most common yeast associated with winemaking is Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has been favored due to its predictable and vigorous fermentation capabilities, tolerance of relatively high levels of alcohol and sulfur dioxide as well as its ability to thrive in normal wine pH between 2.8 and 4. Despite its widespread use which often includes deliberate inoculation from cultured stock, S.cerevisiae is rarely the only yeast species involved in a fermentation. Grapes brought in from harvest are usually teeming with a variety of "wild yeast" from the Kloeckera and Candida genera. These yeasts often begin the fermentation process almost as soon as the grapes are picked when the weight of the clusters in the harvest bins begin to crush the grapes, releasing the sugar-rich must. While additions of sulfur dioxide (often added at the crusher) may limit some of the wild yeast activities, these yeasts will usually die out once the alcohol level reaches about 5% due to the toxicity of alcohol on the yeast cells physiology while the more alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces species take over. In addition to S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus is a species of yeast that can tolerate alcohol levels of 17–20% and is often used in fortified wine production such as ports and varieties such as Zinfandel and Syrah harvested at high Brix sugar levels. Another common yeast involved in wine production is Brettanomyces whose presence in a wine may be viewed by different winemakers as either a wine fault or in limited quantities as an added note of complexity.

This is an excerpt from the article Ambient yeast from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Ambient yeast at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 5 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 04/27/2014)
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Yeast in winemaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In this context, these wild yeasts are often referred to as ambient, indigenous or natural ... But compared to inoculated yeast, these Ambient yeasts hold the risk of ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast_in_winemaking
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Fermentation in winemaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In winemaking, there are distinctions made between Ambient yeasts which are naturally present in wine cellars, vineyards and on the grapes themselves ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation_in_winemaking
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The role of yeast in wine production | Sedimentality
Winemakers use either the ambient (naturally present) or cultivated yeasts when making wine. The yeasts take all the natural sugars in the grapes, convert them ...
sedimentality.com/wine-educatio/the-winemaking-process/yeast/
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Ambient-Spontaneous Yeast Starters | The Mad Fermentationist ...
Apr 25, 2011 ... A method for capturing wild yeast and bacteria for Lambic or sour beer fermentaiton at home.
www.themadfermentationist.com/2011/04/ambient-spontaneous-yeast-starters.html
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Your Hometown Ambient Yeast!? - Home Brew Forums
After being thoroughly inspired by Landhoney and his spontaneous fermentation project: ...
www.homebrewtalk.com/f13/your-hometown-ambient-yeast-51727/
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ambient yeast in wine fermentation : The Wine'dUp – A Wine-O's ...
Nov 18, 2012 ... This is the second article of a three part series exploring wine fermentation: Fundamentals of Wine Fermentation Chemical Reactions during ...
thewinedup.net/tag/ambient-yeast-in-wine-fermentation/
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Yeast - a cultural matter - Jancis Robinson.com
Sep 20, 2008 ... Admittedly it takes time to build up in vineyards and wineries a population of Ambient yeasts that is powerful enough to ferment grapes safely ...
www.jancisrobinson.com/articles/a200809183/layout/print.html
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Semi-Debunking Wild Yeast Fermentation in Wine - Vinography: A ...
Nov 7, 2008 ... Its really a "Ambient yeast" fermentation, which reflects the possibility of an indigenous population of yeast strains in the winery. Also, I've found ...
www.vinography.com/archives/2008/11/debunking_wild_yeast_fermentat.html
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Sulfur Dioxide - Practical Winery & Vineyard Magazine
Wild yeast is the term used for a number of non- Saccharomyces species of Ambient yeast that are present on grapes and in the winery cellar. Wild yeast are ...
www.practicalwinery.com/janfeb09/page3.htm
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Yeast and Ambient Temp During the Rise | The Fresh Loaf
Jan 25, 2009 ... First post here.I use a bread machine for dough and baking. The ambient temperature in my kitchen varies here in Michigan. My bread rise in ...
www.thefreshloaf.com/node/10440/yeast-and-ambient-temp-during-rise
Search results for "Ambient yeast"
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Ambient yeast in science
Yeast in winemaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
But compared to inoculated yeast, these Ambient yeasts hold the risk of ..... M. Baldy The University Wine Course pg 80 The Wine Appreciation Guild Third ...
Fermentation in winemaking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In winemaking, there are distinctions made between Ambient yeasts which are .... Third Edition pg 267-269 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6 ...
The signaling mechanism of ambient pH sensing and adaptation in ...
Mar 23, 2012 ... Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, ... pathways that mediate ambient pH sensing and adaptation in yeast and ...
[PDF]PDF(229K) - Wiley Online Library
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Japan. Keywords ambient pH sensing; calpain; ESCRT; fungi; yeast. Correspondence.
The signaling mechanism of ambient pH sensing and adaptation in ...
Mar 23, 2012 ... ambient pH sensing;; calpain;; ESCRT;; fungi;; yeast ..... I thank Dr Masatoshi Maki of Nagoya University and Dr Eiji Morita of Osaka University ...
[PDF]Storage of Immobilized Yeast Cells for Use in Wine-Making at ...
Environmental and Applied Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras, Greece, and ... on apple pieces, kissiris, and γ-alumina at ambient temperature.
Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine ...
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, ... yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser ...
“Examine the advantages and disadvantages of using cultured ...
Oct 20, 2012 ... The University of Geisenheim has recent studies that prove that the .... By the way , rather a lot of winemakers still use Ambient yeasts in Europe.
Cultured Yeast - WineBusiness.com
Their cellars and vineyards have collected and bred Ambient yeast over the ... to many California winemakers' education at the science-oriented University of ...
Semi-Debunking Wild Yeast Fermentation in Wine - Vinography: A ...
Nov 7, 2008 ... Its really a "Ambient yeast" fermentation, which reflects the possibility of .... to me ( what she learned at university) that fermentation yeasts in the ...
Books on the term Ambient yeast
The World of Sicilian Wine
The World of Sicilian Wine
Bill Nesto, Frances Di Savino, 2013
WILD, AMBIENT, AND SELECTED YEASTS Sulfite additions are inextricably connected to the subject of vineyard, winery, and selected yeast activity during winemaking. Sulfites subdue and kill vineyard yeast, socalled wild yeast, that arrives ...
The Winemaker's Answer Book: Solutions to Every Problem; Answers ...
The Winemaker's Answer Book: Solutions to Every Problem; Answers ...
Alison Crowe, 2007
Though the above example may be a little simplistic, it is instructive in reminding ourselves that yeast thrive and perform best ... A I'm not a big fan of so-called natural fermentations, in which a winemaker relies solely on Ambient yeast and ...
Cooking for Geeks: Real Science, Great Hacks, and Good Food
Cooking for Geeks: Real Science, Great Hacks, and Good Food
Jeff Potter, 2010
Biologically based leaveners—primarily yeast, but also bacteria for salt-rising breads—are surely the oldest method for generating air in foods. Presumably, a prehistoric ... they taste great. Traditionally winemakers relied on Ambient yeasts  ...
Issues in Applied Agriculture: 2012 Edition
Issues in Applied Agriculture: 2012 Edition
2013
For each product, GC and VTM samples were stored at ambient temperature ( 22°C) and at an elevated temperature (40°C) for 2 wk. No differences in viable yeast count were observed between GC and VTM samples immediately ...
Aging Research in Yeast
Aging Research in Yeast
Michael Breitenbach, S. Michal Jazwinski, Peter Laun, 2011
However, adding glutathione in 55% oxygen does increase the lifespan of a yeast strain to that observed in the wild type in ambient air. One additional step is to use a yeast strain deleted for both catalases, and now the lifespan elongation by ...
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Blog posts on the term
Ambient yeast
No such thing as wild yeast fermentation? - The Feiring Line
I might be a decent journalist, but I am a very good cynic. That's why when I read the Wine Buisiness Monthly piece entitled Study Indicates Commercial Yeast Strains Take Over Fermentation, and then Tom Wark's , Wild Yeast Fermentation:There's No Such Thing, the reportage and interpretation smelled off. Jessica N. Lange (now in dental school) was the study's author. She focused her master's thesis on three British Columbia wineries and four fermentations at each, three inoculated and one spontaneous. Her purpose was to study the multitudinous yeast strains that finished the job. Her conclusion? Whether inoculated or spontaneous, the...
www.alicefeiring.com/blog/2013/08/no-such-thing-as-wild-yeast-fermentation.html
Woodland Brewing Company: Yeast Health When Kept At Ambient Temperatures
 WLP004 (blue) is read on the right axis. WLP566 (red) is read on the left axis Yeast maintains it's viability very well outside of the refrigerator.
woodlandbrew.blogspot.com/2012/12/yeast-health-when-kept-at-ambient.html
Yeast and Ambient Temp During the Rise | The Fresh Loaf
First post here.I use a bread machine for dough and baking. The ambient temperature in my kitchen varies here in Michigan. My bread rise in winter is a fraction of what I get in the summer when the kitchen is 10 degrees warmer. My Hitachi HB-D102 is supposed to keep the dough warm during the rise, but there is a still a big difference between summer and winter.
www.thefreshloaf.com/node/10440/yeast-and-ambient-temp-during-rise
Yeast temp threasholds and ambient vs actual temp - Home Brew Forums
Greetings everyone. Just had a quick question, so when in primary, and the little yeasties are doing what they do best, I have read the temp. of the
www.homebrewtalk.com/f163/yeast-temp-threasholds-ambient-vs-actual-temp-174776/
yesterdish.com » Quick Process Bread
A yeast bread with a very short rising time. I would suggest giving an even longer rise, personally–45 to 60 minutes per rise.
www.yesterdish.com/2013/06/05/quick-process-bread/
Wild Yeast Fermentation: "There's No Such Thing" - Fermentation
fermentationwineblog.com/2013/08/wild-yeast-fermentation-theres-no-such-thing/
Two Syrahs from K Vintners | Full Pull Wines Offer Archive
Hello friends. We’re fortunate to have dibs today on two rarities from the higher end of the K Vintners lineup that are about to hit Seattle. A few items of note: 1. Our list has first right of refusal on the tiny parcels coming into Seattle. If we want it all, we get it all.…
fullpullwines.wordpress.com/2013/08/18/two-syrahs-from-k-vintners/
paul gregutt's washington wine blog – unfined & unfiltered: wild yeasts – part two
Returning to the discussion engendered by my earlier post (July 19) about so-called “wild” yeasts, I urge anyone interested to read through the illuminating comments that followed that post as a pre-amble to further discussion. I did a consumer-friendly version of the blog post for the newspaper column this past weekend, and it brought some further comments from folks who seem to have the requisite background in fermentation sciences to have opinions solidly grounded in verifiable facts.
www.paulgregutt.com/2012/08/wild-yeasts-part-two.html
Walter Speller » NEW11 part 3 – yeast as part of terroir
www.walterspeller.com/?p=672
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