Avialae
Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, two-legged, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates. Aves ranks as the tetrapod class with the most living species, approximately ten thousand. Extant birds belong to the subclass Neornithes, living worldwide and ranging in size from the 5 cm (2 in) Bee Hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) Ostrich. The fossil record indicates that birds emerged within the theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period, around 150 million years ago. Birds are the only living members of the clade that originated with the earliest dinosaurs.
Modern birds are characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Extant birds have wings; the most recent species without wings was the moa, which is generally considered to have become extinct in the 16th century. Wings are evolved forelimbs, and most bird species can fly. Flightless birds include ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. Some species of birds, particularly penguins and members of the Anatidae family, are adapted to swim. Birds also have digestive and respiratory systems that are uniquely adapted for flight. Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animal species; several bird species make and use tools, and many social species culturally transmit knowledge across generations.
Many species annually migrate great distances, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have polygynous ("many females") or, rarely, polyandrous ("many males") breeding systems. Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.
Many species are economically important, mostly as game or poultry. Some species, particularly songbirds and parrots, are popular as pets. Another use of birds is harvesting guano (droppings) for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. Human acitivity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.

This is an excerpt from the article Avialae from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
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Bird - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, two-legged, warm- blooded, egg-laying vertebrates. Aves ranks as the tetrapod class with the most ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird
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Avialae - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Avialae is defined as clade based on physical characteristics. Jacques Gauthier named Avialae in 1986, and first defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that ...
simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avialae
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The Birds (Aves or Avialae) - Pinterest
Birds, all the beautiful birds... Recent and vintage. And their ...
www.pinterest.com/kristecam/the-birds-aves-or-avialae/
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Avialae - Palaeos.org
Jun 4, 2013 ... The First Birds. This page covers the first dinosaurs that we would clearly recognize as birds: feathered creatures who flew. The earliest ...
www.palaeos.org/Avialae
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An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae ...
Jul 28, 2011 ... The origin of the Avialae (defined as the most-inclusive clade containing Passer domesticus but not Dromaeosaurus albertensis or Troodon ...
www.nature.com/nature/journal/v475/n7357/full/nature10288.html
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An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae ...
Jul 28, 2011 ... This find further demonstrates that many features formerly regarded as being diagnostic of Avialae, including long and robust forelimbs, actually ...
www.nature.com/nature/journal/v475/n7357/abs/nature10288.html
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1 THE AVIALAE A. What is a bird? Shared, derived characteristics of ...
belong to the clade Avialae; modern (Cenozoic) birds belong to the clade. Aves, also called Neornithes in some of the images from the lecture. Shared derived ...
www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/EAR65/LECTURE%20INFORMATION/08-0527%20BIRDS/08-0527%20NOTES.pdf
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BLACK CELEBRATION - Avialae
Avialae. After years in fashion in and out of Japan, Tomohiro Koyama began exploring the Japanese textiles and craftsmanship techniques. He implemented his ...
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Mens Products | Avialae | Darklands
Men's fashion store | Heidestrasse 50, Berlin Tiergarten.
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An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae.
Nature. 2011 Jul 27;475(7357):465-70. doi: 10.1038/nature10288. An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae. Xu X, You H, Du K, Han ...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796204
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Avialae in science
Avialae - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Avialae is a term for birds and their immediate extinct ancestors. ... L.F. Gall eds) Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during evolution ... - bioRxiv
Jan 16, 2014 ... Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during evolution of the Avialae support aerial maneuvering hypotheses for flight origins.
Avila University: Kansas City undergrad, graduate and MBA programs
Avila University is a Catholic University in south Kansas City delivering accredited degrees in nursing, pre-health, education, business, theatre, film and visual ...
Avila - Eagles Athletics - Avila University
Play in the NAIA in college at Avila University. Sports range from baseball, basketball, football, golf, soccer, volleyball and more!
Basal Avialae - California Scholarship Online - University Press ...
The first animal universally accepted as a true bird is Archaeopteryx lithographica . In this chapter, the name Avialae is introduced to encompass Archaeopteryx ...
[PDF]Title: Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during ... - arXiv.org
Jan 13, 2013 ... Avialae support aerial maneuvering hypotheses for flight origins ... 1Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA.
Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during evolution of the ...
Jan 14, 2014 ... In the evolution of the Avialae we observe shifts from static stability to inherently unstable aerial planforms; control effectiveness also migrated ...
Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during ... - ResearchGate
evolution of the Avialae we observe shifts from static stability to inherently unstable ... 1Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA.
[PDF]Discovery of an Avialae bird from China ... - ResearchGate
China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China. 4. ... The text describes a new specimen of the Avialae from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Fm.
Books on the term Avialae
The Dinosauria: Second Edition
The Dinosauria: Second Edition
David B. Weishampel, Peter Dodson, Halszka Osmólska, 2004
KEVIN PADIAN Mesozoic Avialae (excluding Neornithes) (Table compiled by Thomas P. Stidham). Birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs some 150 million years ago. Most of the features associated with birds— feathers, sternum,  ...
Avila Beach (Images of America)
Avila Beach (Images of America)
Terry J. San Filippo, Jack San Filippo and Pete Kelley, 2013
Authors Terry J. San Filippo, Jack San Filippo, and Pete Kelley tell the story of Avila Beach and its many transformations throughout the years and of the people who lived here and who made it homefusing the best of their characters into the true spirit of what Avila Beach is all about.
The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs
The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs
David E. Fastovsky, David B. Weishampel, 2005
The clade Archaeopteryx + living birds, known as Avialae, is well supported ( Figure 13.6), but ultimately the fossil record will require us to entertain a concept of birds that is considerably expanded over one developed from just living ...
Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs
Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs
Philip J. Currie, Kevin Padian, 1997
(1986) established the term Avialae (''birdwings'') to encompass Archaeopteryx plus ornithurine birds. Gauthier used the term ''ornithurine'' birds in a somewhat different sense than other workers, defining it as living birds and all taxa closer to  ...
Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History
Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History
David E. Fastovsky, 2009
From the authors of The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs comes an introduction to the study of dinosaurs for non-specialists designed to excite readers about science by using dinosaurs to illustrate and discuss geology, natural history and evolution. While focusing on dinosaurs it also uses them to convey other aspects of the natural scien...
The Complete Dinosaur
The Complete Dinosaur
Michael K. Brett-Surman, Thomas R. Holtz, James O. Farlow, 2012
Gauthier (1986) therefore used Aves for the crown group only and coined Avialae for the branch-based clade that includes modern birds and all species closer to them than to deinonychosaurs. As a result of this decision, the term Aves is used  ...
The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs
The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs
David E. Fastovsky, 2005
Written for non-specialists, this detailed survey of dinosaur origins, diversity, and extinction is designed as a series of successive essays covering important and timely topics in dinosaur paleobiology, such as "warm-bloodedness," birds as living dinosaurs, the new, non-flying feathered dinosaurs, dinosaur functional morphology, and cla...
The Dinosauria
The Dinosauria
2004
When the The Dinosauria was first published more than a decade ago, it was hailed as "the best scholarly reference work available on dinosaurs" and "an historically unparalleled compendium of information." This second, fully revised edition continues in the same vein as the first but encompasses the recent spectacular discoverie...
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Avialae
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