Cryptanalysis of Tunny
Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher was the process that enabled the British to read high-level German army messages during World War II. The British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park decrypted many communications between the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, German High Command) in Berlin and their army commands throughout occupied Europe, some of which were signed "Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer". These were intercepted non-Morse radio messages that had been enciphered by the Lorenz SZ teletypewriter rotor stream cipher attachments. Decrypts of this traffic became an important source of "Ultra" intelligence.
For its high-level secret messages, the German armed services enciphered each character using various online Geheimschreiber (secret writer) stream cipher machines at both ends of a telegraph link using the 5-bit International Telegraphy Alphabet No. 2 (ITA2). These machines were the Lorenz SZ (SZ for Schlüsselzusatz, meaning "cipher attachment") machine for the army, the Siemens and Halske T52 for the air force and the Siemens T43, which was little used and never broken by the Allies.
Bletchley Park decrypts of messages enciphered with the Enigma machines revealed that the Germans called one of their wireless teleprinter transmission systems "Sägefisch" (sawfish), which led British cryptographers to refer to encrypted German teleprinter traffic as "Fish". "Tunny" was the name given to the first non-Morse link, and it was subsequently used for the Lorenz SZ machines and the traffic enciphered by them.
As with the entirely separate Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, it was German operational shortcomings that allowed the initial diagnosis of the system, and a way into decryption. Unlike Enigma, no physical machine reached allied hands until the very end of the war in Europe, long after wholesale decryption had been established. Initially, operator errors produced a number of pairs of messages sent with the same keys, giving a "depth", which often allowed manual decryption to be achieved. One long depth also allowed the complete logical structure of the machine to be worked out, a quite remarkable cryptanalytical feat on which the subsequent comprehensive decrypting of Tunny messages relied.
When depths became less frequent, decryption was achieved by a combination of manual and automated methods. The first machine to automate part of the decrypting process was called "Heath Robinson" and it was followed by several other "Robinsons". These were, however, slow and unreliable, and were supplemented by the much faster and flexible "Colossus" the world's first electronic, programmable digital computer, ten of which were in use by the end of the war.
Albert W. Small, an American cryptographer from the US Signal Corps who was seconded to Bletchley Park and worked on Tunny, said in his December 1944 report back to Arlington Hall that:

This is an excerpt from the article Cryptanalysis of Tunny from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Cryptanalysis of Tunny at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 8 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 11/20/2013)
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Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[edit]. A rebuilt British Tunny at the National Museum of Computing, Bletchley Park. It imitated the functions of the Lorenz SZ40/42, ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptanalysis_of_the_Lorenz_cipher
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World War II Tunny Cryptanalysis Machine Rebuilt at Bletchley Park
Jun 3, 2011 ... The rebuild team had only a few photographs, partial circuit diagrams and the fading memories of a few original Tunny operators to go on.
www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2011/06/world_war_ii_tu.html
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Bletchley Park completes epic Tunny machine • The Register
May 26, 2011 ... The original Tunny, a British project to re-engineer the then-unseen German Lorenz S42 cipher machine, was developed in 1942. After tens of ...
www.theregister.co.uk/2011/05/26/bletchley_park_tunny_rebuild_project/
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WW II Codes and Ciphers
The history, science and engineering of cryptanalysis in World War II created by ... the Fish codes, Tunny (Lorenz) and attempting to break Sturgeon (Siemans).
www.codesandciphers.org.uk/
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Turing and Tunny wheel breaking cryptanalysis (via norms and ...
Nov 20, 2013 ... http://turingarchive.org/viewer/?id=133&title=28 its tempting to talk about spectral gaps, expander graphs and modern notions as if Turing had a ...
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2013/11/20/turing-and-tunny-wheel-breaking-cryptanalysis-via-norms-and-averaging/
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from Tunny-era cryptanalysis to modern American cipher, suiting ...
Dec 20, 2013 ... In the papers on war-time enigma attach methods, Turing discloses how he originally calculated odds factors. That is, for an assumed urn-style ...
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2013/12/20/from-tunny-era-cryptanalysis-to-modern-american-cipher-suiting-nsas-mission/
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Colossus and Tunny still helps teach cryptanalysis theory | Peter's ...
Nov 1, 2013 ... Sometimes things click, as they did for me tonight. Something I read in the Tunny report (on how Colossus was used in the attack on Tunny ...
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2013/11/01/colossus-and-tunny-astill-helps-teach-cryptanalysis-theory/
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tunny/colossus setting vs des differential cryptanalysis | Peter's ...
Mar 14, 2012 ... http://www.cs.miami.edu/~burt/learning/Csc688.012/rijndael/PropCorr.pdf In the world of DES, there are rounds – producing intermediate ...
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2012/03/14/tunnycolossus-setting-vs-des-differential-cryptanalysis/
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Tunny-era Rectangling and modern cryptanalysis through the eyes ...
Dec 21, 2013 ... Let's look at the really quite illuminating crypto-analytical argument Susskind makes when talking about false vacuums in physics, comparing it ...
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2013/12/21/enter-a-post-titletunny/
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Lorenz cipher - Wikipedia, the free…
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42A and SZ42B were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II. They were developed by C. Lorenz AG in Berlin ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunny_(cryptography)
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Cryptanalysis of Tunny in science
Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Tunny" was the name given to the first non-Morse link, and it was subsequently used ... As with the entirely separate Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, it was German ...... the Enigma and the Internet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN ...
Jerry Roberts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He was a leading codebreaker / linguist, who worked on Tunny - Hitler's most ... Early in World War II, his tutor at University College London, Professor ... of the three original senior linguist-cryptanalysts working on the daily breaking of Tunny .
Alan Turing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Institutions, University of Cambridge ... Cryptanalysis of the Enigma ... 1 Early life and career; 2 University and work on computability; 3 Cryptanalysis .... out the cam settings of the wheels of the Lorenz SZ 40/42 (Tunny) dubbed Turingery and , ...
W. T. Tutte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tutte's breakthroughs led eventually to bulk decrypting of Tunny-enciphered ... Bletchley Park's veteran and remarkably gifted cryptanalyst, to deduce that it was a .... In 1962, he moved to the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ontario where ...
World War II Tunny Cryptanalysis Machine Rebuilt at Bletchley Park
Jun 3, 2011 ... The rebuild team had only a few photographs, partial circuit diagrams and the fading memories of a few original Tunny operators to go on.
[PDF]UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara Cryptanalysis of the ...
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. Santa Barbara. Cryptanalysis of ...... the cryptanalysis of the SZ40 were referred to as tunny as in [SAT01] ; these fi rst generation ...
TITLE: Cryptanalysis of the Schlusselzusatz - SCONCE
TITLE: Cryptanalysis of the Schlusselzusat. by ... University of California, Santa Barbara ... [SAT01] Tony Sale, "Part of the general report on Tunny", March 2001  ...
Telegraph obituary - MacTutor History of Mathematics
Codebreakers managed to work out how "Tunny" was constructed as a ... As a result, Bletchley Park cryptanalysts led by Hilton were able to work out the basic ... postwar at the Mathematics faculty at Manchester University) never guessed ...
Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers
Tunny messages sent by radio were first intercepted by the British in June 1941. .... The Essential Turing (Oxford University Press, 2004) gives a comprehensive ..... The de-chi was then passed to the Testery, where a cryptanalyst would break  ...
Books on the term Cryptanalysis of Tunny
Scientific Research In World War II: What scientists did in ...
Scientific Research In World War II: What scientists did in ...
Ad Maas, Hans Hooijmaijers, 2008
Whereas Enigma deals with characters, for instance turning an A into a Q, Tunny operates not on characters but on bits. ... The complicated nature of the Tunny machine made the cryptanalysis laborious, and – presumably thanks to the ...
Stealing Secrets, Telling Lies
Stealing Secrets, Telling Lies
JAMES GANNON autofilled, 2001
Bletchley always referred to it and to the German original as “Tunny” and to the SZ cipher emissions as “Fish. ... He said, “Such a work factor could never be achieved [by classical cryptanalysis] even if the moon were completely converted into ...
Colossus: The secrets of Bletchley Park's code-breaking ...
Colossus: The secrets of Bletchley Park's code-breaking ...
B. Jack Copeland, 2006
The British Museum attack is out of the question, both for the Enigma and for Tunny. The cryptanalyst has to break the problem down. TUNNY The cryptographic machines Enigma and Tunny had very different designs; and a single Tunny ...
Modern Cryptanalysis: Techniques for Advanced Code Breaking
Modern Cryptanalysis: Techniques for Advanced Code Breaking
Christopher Swenson, 2008
As an instructor at the University of Tulsa, Christopher Swenson could find no relevant text for teaching modern cryptanalysis?so he wrote his own. This is the first book that brings the study of cryptanalysis into the 21st century. Swenson provides a foundation in traditional cryptanalysis, examines ciphers based on number theory, explores block c...
Decoding Organization: Bletchley Park, Codebreaking and ...
Decoding Organization: Bletchley Park, Codebreaking and ...
Christopher Grey, 2012
Codebreaker: Generic term for cryptanalyst. ... computer and arguably the world's first such), several versions of which were developed at BP to solve Fish, especially Tunny. ... Crib: In a generic sense, an evidential clue used in cryptanalysis.
Applied Cryptanalysis: Breaking Ciphers in the Real World
Applied Cryptanalysis: Breaking Ciphers in the Real World
Mark Stamp and Richard M. Low, 2007
The book is designed to be accessible to motivated IT professionals who want to learn more about the specific attacks covered. In particular, every effort has been made to keep the chapters independent, so if someone is interested in has function cryptanalysis or RSA timing attacks, they do not necessarily need to study all of the previous material...
Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park
Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park
F. H. Hinsley, Alan Stripp, 2001
I worked on Enigma and on Tunny. Before going into details, let us consider a few generalities concerning the art or science of cryptology, the two main branches of which are cryptography and cryptanalysis. The aim of the cryptographer is to ...
Timothy Tunny Swallowed a Bunny
Timothy Tunny Swallowed a Bunny
Bill Grossman and Kevin Hawkes, 2001
In a riotous collection of rhymes about such unusual characters as Old Ned, who walks with a horse on his head; squeaky-clean Keith, who brushes his teeth--and his head--right out of existence; and Mr. McFyfe, who has been sitting on his wife for a long, long time, Bill Grossman keeps his readers rolling in the aisles. Take "The Barber," ...
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Cryptanalysis of Tunny
Schneier on Security: World War II Tunny Cryptanalysis Machine Rebuilt at Bletchley Park
www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2011/06/world_war_ii_tu.html
vanishing terms in Cryptanalysis | Peter's ruminations
We finally understand some of the assumed background used in the Tunny cryptanalysis, circa 1944. Chapter 1 - Introduction Of course, we recall how Turing, in his On Permutation’s manuscript, went to some trouble to model parity – recalling our belief that his underlying mental model was one of attempting to apply the quantum mechanics…
yorkporc.wordpress.com/2013/12/28/vanishing-terms-in-cryptanalysis/
Easy Indexed Access to Declassified NSA/CSS Documents | Jerusalem Mosaics
The NSA/CSS Declassification Initiatives web page contains the following easily overlooked paragraph: "An index of 4,923 entries containing approximately 1.3 million pages of previously declassified documents, which have been released to NARA is provided. The documents are from the pre-World War I period through the end of World War II." The links refers to a…
mosherubin.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/easy-indexed-access-to-declassified-nsacss-documents/
Christos military and intelligence corner: Soviet 5-figure codes
The highest level code used by the Soviet military was the 5-figure codebook enciphered with Blocknot (book where each page had a random sequence of numbers, organized in numbered rows and columns). There were two main categories of Blocknots :1.
chris-intel-corner.blogspot.com/2012/01/soviet-5-figure-codes.html
Question about 'random number generators' and their seeds (with respect to real world cryptography) - Straight Dope Message Board
Question about 'random number generators' and their seeds (with respect to real world cryptography) General Questions
boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=710216
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