Apr 2, 2011 ... The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas .... Graicunas graduated from the University Chicago with a degree in accounting and ...

Graicunas formula

In business theory, the Graicunas formula is named after V.A. Graicunas, who gave a mathematical formula to explain the complexity of span of control if more subordinates are added to the executive.

Every executive 'always measures the burden of his responsibility to control the subordinates in terms of single relationship between himself and his subordinates. Graicunas feels that in any group, the relations between executive and his subordinates cannot just be calculated based on single relationship alone. According to him, there also exists cross relationships which increase in mathematical proportion. The direct single relationship always increase in the same proportion as the number of subordinates. In such a case each addition to t h ~ I, group would only create a single direct relationship. But according to Graicunas there also exists direct group and cross relationships which increase very rapidly than the 1I1 increase in the number of subordinates. This is n~a because the addition of each \ !/ individual results in many cross and drrett group relationships as there are persons already in the group. Therefore, the number of relationships increases in exponential proportion. Based upon his studies, Graicunas develops a formula to calculate the /I/ number of relationships to enable the executives to-examine the complexity of span of control.

According to these formulae, in any organisalion if there are three subordinates direct single relationships would be three, cross relationships six and direct group relationships nine. But if one more member is added there would nor be any change in the direct single relationships which would be four, but the cross relationships would increase to 12 and direct group relationship, however, rise exponentially to 28. This explains that addition of each member to the group under the control of the executive would increase the number of direct group relationships to such an extent that direct contribution becomes difficult in some cases even impossible. Graicunas also added that for subordinates it is clhite easy to grasp and remember every combination of groups. But from five on, it is not possible to remember because the relationships become more of confusion.

When the x principle enunciated by Graicunas is valid or not, whether the formulae has empirical validity or not, the problem that any increase in the number of subordinates would lead to complexity in the relationships between the individual and groups has aptly been brought out by Graicunas. It is this factor that needs to be carefully considered in any discussion on how many subordinates an executive can effectively control.

This is an excerpt from the article Graicunas formula from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.

Every executive 'always measures the burden of his responsibility to control the subordinates in terms of single relationship between himself and his subordinates. Graicunas feels that in any group, the relations between executive and his subordinates cannot just be calculated based on single relationship alone. According to him, there also exists cross relationships which increase in mathematical proportion. The direct single relationship always increase in the same proportion as the number of subordinates. In such a case each addition to t h ~ I, group would only create a single direct relationship. But according to Graicunas there also exists direct group and cross relationships which increase very rapidly than the 1I1 increase in the number of subordinates. This is n~a because the addition of each \ !/ individual results in many cross and drrett group relationships as there are persons already in the group. Therefore, the number of relationships increases in exponential proportion. Based upon his studies, Graicunas develops a formula to calculate the /I/ number of relationships to enable the executives to-examine the complexity of span of control.

According to these formulae, in any organisalion if there are three subordinates direct single relationships would be three, cross relationships six and direct group relationships nine. But if one more member is added there would nor be any change in the direct single relationships which would be four, but the cross relationships would increase to 12 and direct group relationship, however, rise exponentially to 28. This explains that addition of each member to the group under the control of the executive would increase the number of direct group relationships to such an extent that direct contribution becomes difficult in some cases even impossible. Graicunas also added that for subordinates it is clhite easy to grasp and remember every combination of groups. But from five on, it is not possible to remember because the relationships become more of confusion.

When the x principle enunciated by Graicunas is valid or not, whether the formulae has empirical validity or not, the problem that any increase in the number of subordinates would lead to complexity in the relationships between the individual and groups has aptly been brought out by Graicunas. It is this factor that needs to be carefully considered in any discussion on how many subordinates an executive can effectively control.

This is an excerpt from the article Graicunas formula from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.

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Graicunas formula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Graicunas Theory of Span of Control - Example and Formula

Aug 2, 2011 ... Graicunas Theory of Span of Control - Example and Formula, article posted by Gaurav Akrani on Kalyan City Life blog.

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V.A.Graicunas «MANAGEMENT INNOVATIONS MANAGEMENT ...

Dec 17, 2008 ... V.A.Graicunas developed a formula for determining the no. of possible relationships between a manager and subordinates when the no. of ...

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Graicunas formula (Meaning of) - Encyclo

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USE OF GRAICUNAS FORMULA for Principles of Management ...

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The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas - Fred Nickols

the Formulas of V.A.. Graicunas. Fred Nickols. 4/2/2011. This paper presents the formulas for determining a manager's span of control as set forth by V.A..

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What does Graicuna's formula determine? | ChaCha

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Principles Of Span Of Management - InformationBible

Apr 2, 2012 ... Graicunas has given the following formulae to ascertain direct relationships with varying number of subordinates. With the number of ...

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THE DETERMINATION OF SPAN OF CONTROL

Putting the above expression into the Graicunas formula, we get the impact of the number of relationships between superior and subordinates on the degree of ...

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[PDF]The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas - Fred Nickols

graicunas - Scribd

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[PDF]THE DETERMINATION OF SPAN OF CONTROL

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Jun 11, 2012 ... By using Graicunas formula, we can find out the number of relationships (r), if the number of subordinates (n) is given. • Example of Graicunas ...

Graicunas formula - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Books on the term Graicunas formula

Principles Of Management

Graicunas' formula, however, is not very useful in practice for two reasons: 1. It
ignores the frequency and importance of relationships. The possible number of
total relationships are perhaps not so important for a manager as their frequency
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Papers on the Science of Administration: 4 (Early Sociology of Management and Organizations)

This edited collection includes contributions by Mary Parker Follett, Henri Fayol, James D. Mooney and Henry S. Dennison, and L. J. Henderson, T. N. Whitehead and Elton Mayo. The paper by Henderson, Whitehead and Mayo discusses the findings of the Hawthorne experiments. Whilst admiring the pioneering work of Taylor, these authors criticize scientif...

Principles Of Management,3/E

Graicunas' formula, however, is not very useful in practice for two reasons: 1. It
ignores the frequency and importance of relationships. The possible number of
total relationships are perhaps not so important for a manager as their frequency
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Management Today: Principles and Practice

For example, using the Graicunas formula, a manager with only two subordinates
faces only six potential interactions. If the number of subordinates is increased to
three, the number of potential interactions becomes eighteen. If the number of ...

Management Principles And Practices

Graicunas calculated the number of relationships which the manager has to
supervise with addition of every new subordinate. He has suggested
mathematical formulae for such calculations: 1. Formula for the total number of
relationships is ...

Handbook of Organizations

Several implicit assumptions are important in the interpretation of the formula: first
, Graicunas assumes that all the various relationships of subordinates must
receive attention by the superior (i.e., he has no help from informal organizations)
; ...

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Graicunas formula

Graicunas formula

THIRAWIYAN: Graicunas Theory of Span of Control

Graicunas Theory of Span of Control
Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas (1898-1952) was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theorist and engineer.
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