Great Calcutta Riot
Direct Action Day (Bengali: প্রত্যক্ষ সংগ্রাম দিবস) (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India. The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives.
The 'Direct Action' announced by Emil Harris to achieve the Muslim League's Demand of Pakistan (a separate country for Indian Muslims whom he claimed were a nation on their own as opposed to non-Muslim Indians) resulted in the worst communal riots that British India had seen.
The Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India in the 1940s. The 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed an initial plan of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government. However, soon an alternative plan to divide the British Raj into a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan was proposed by the Muslim League. The Congress rejected the alternative proposal outright. Muslim League planned general strike (hartal) on 16 August terming it as Direct Action Day to protest this rejection, and to assert its demand for a separate Muslim homeland.
In those days the situation in Bengal was particularly complex. In the province, Muslims represented the majority of the population (56%, as against 42% of Hindus) and were mostly concentrated in the Eastern part. As a result of this demographic structure and specific developments, this Province was the only one in which a Muslim League government was in power under the provincial autonomy scheme introduced in 1935 in coalition with the Europeans, and against the hurdle of strong opposition from the Congress, the Communist Party of India and also from a Hindu nationalist party, the Hindu Mahasabha. The latter was supported by many members of the rich Marwari trading community, composed of immigrants from Rajasthan, who largely dominated the economy of central Calcutta (although European capital was still important). For this, inhabitants of Calcutta comprising 64% Hindu and 33% Muslim were by then divided into two highly antagonistic entities. Against this backdrop, the protest triggered massive riots in Calcutta. In Calcutta, within 72 hours, more than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents in the city of Calcutta were left homeless. Violence in Calcutta sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Province (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.

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Direct Action Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Direct Action Day (Bengali: প্রত্যক্ষ সংগ্রাম দিবস) (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_Action_Day
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The Calcutta Riots of 1946 - Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Jul 24, 2008 ... The Calcutta Riots of 1946, also known as the “Great Calcutta Killing,” were four days of massive Hindu-Muslim riots in the capital of Bengal, (.
www.massviolence.org/The-Calcutta-Riots-of-1946
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Calcutta Communal Riot or Great Calcutta Killings - August 1946 ...
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of Calcutta (now known ...
www.oldindianphotos.in/2011/01/calcutta-communal-riot-or-great.html
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1946 : the great calcutta killings noakhali genocide - East Bengal ...
1946 right after the Great Calcutta killings that started on 16th August, 1946. One sided riots (riot means clash of two opposite forces, which did not happen.
www.eastbengal.org/bengal1946_calcutta_noakhali_killing.pdf
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Riot reporting done right - Times Of India
Aug 12, 2013 ... Though when the term riots is used, the Great Calcutta Killings of 1946 flash across our minds, especially because the week-long massacre ...
articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-08-12/kolkata/41331147_1_muslims-hindus-rioting
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Calcutta riots - The National Archives
Extracts from a military report on the Calcutta riots, 24 August 1946 (WO 216/662) ... lathis were produced and in no time North Calcutta was a scene of mob riot.
www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/topics/calcutta-riots.htm
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16-19 August 1946 - Great Calcutta Killings - Calcutta 1940s
The slow, painful process of dismantling British India began with the Great Calcutta Riots and ended with the genocide in Punjab. I was nine in 1946 and ...
gypsyscholar.com/31626historiceventskillingst.html
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Muslim/Hindu Riots 1946 | GoreGrish
"Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of ...
forum.goregrish.com/threads/muslim-hindu-riots-1946.16670/
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Calcutta Riot August 1946 - GlobalWebPost.com
His personality was of the type that aroused great admiration or intense antagonism, but he suffered the most bitter attacks in connection with the Calcutta riots ...
globalwebpost.com/farooqm/study_res/suhrawardy/calcutta_riot.html
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Great Calcutta Killing - Conservapedia
Feb 8, 2011 ... The Great Calcutta Killing or the Day of Direct Action (Muslim title) was a large- scale riot which took place in mid-August, 1946 between Hindus ...
www.conservapedia.com/Great_Calcutta_Killing
Search results for "Great Calcutta Riot"
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Great Calcutta Riot in science
Direct Action Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Noakhali–Tippera riot was a direct sequel to the Great Calcutta Riot and therefore, .... Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) 34 (2): 281– 306.
[PDF]A City Feeding on Itself: - Sarai
and Muslims alike, who were most active in the Calcutta riots before 1946 and ... Muslim League leaders spent a great deal of time in police control rooms directing ..... Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-47 (Cambridge University Press,.
Calcutta Riot August 1946 - GlobalWebPost.com
Oxford University Press, 1991 ... His personality was of the type that aroused great admiration or intense antagonism, but he suffered the most bitter attacks in connection with ... The Calcutta riots of August 1946 were not caused by Shaheed.
[PDF]The Calcutta Riots of 1946 - Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Nov 5, 2007 ... The Calcutta Riots of 1946, also known as the Great Calcutta Killing ... Hindu- Muslim riots in the capital of Bengal, India, resulting in 5,000 to ..... DAS, S., 1991, Communal Riots in Bengal 1905-1947, Delhi, Oxford University ...
[PDF]1946 : the great calcutta killings noakhali genocide - East Bengal ...
Sixty four years have passed since the Great Calcutta Killings and the. Noakhali ... words and events, viz. ferocious riots, mass murders, forcible conversion to. Islam, gang ... Professor of History, Hansraj College, University of Delhi. Words are ...
16-19 August 1946 - Great Calcutta Killings - Calcutta 1940s
_____Pictures of 1940s Calcutta_________________________ ... Clashes and riots had been know to take place when someone, deliberately or otherwise, squirted dye ..... London, 1952 / Reproduced by courtesy of Oxford University Press) ...
The Great Divide: Bengal Partition 1947
... from the University of Chittagong, examined the impact of the Great Calcutta Killing ... Contrary to conventional wisdom he argued that the Calcutta riots did not ...
Calcutta Communal Riot or Great Calcutta Killings - August 1946 ...
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of Calcutta (now known ...
Books on the term Great Calcutta Riot
Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-1947
Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932-1947
Joya Chatterji, 2002
This was the context in which the Great Calcutta Killing took place. The rioting, in which at least 5,000 died, was not a spontaneous and inexplicable outburst of aggression by faceless mobs. Both sides in the confrontation came well-prepared  ...
Towards Independence, 1940-1947: Memoirs of an Indian Civil ...
Towards Independence, 1940-1947: Memoirs of an Indian Civil ...
Asok Mitra, 1991
The Bihar communal riots came not as a reaction to the Great Calcutta Killing but, 1 presume, as a retaliation for the terrible ravages in Noakhpli and Tipperah from 10 through 21 October. The Bihar riots occurred from 24 October through 1 1 ...
Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories
Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories
S. C. Bhatt, Gopal Bhargava, 2005
In February 1946, Calcutta witnessed the great Calcutta killings. Riots broke out again in August. India finally gained independence on ISth August 1947, but not without paying a heavy price. India was divided into two nations - India - a ...
The Great Riots of New York, 1712 to 1873
The Great Riots of New York, 1712 to 1873
Joel Tyler Headley, 2012
This book was converted from its physical edition to the digital format by a community of volunteers. You may find it for free on the web. Purchase of the Kindle edition includes wireless delivery.
Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots ...
Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots ...
Steven I. Wilkinson, Steven Wilkinson, 2006
Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India Steven I. Wilkinson, Steven Wilkinson ... October 1946 decision, in the aftermath of the August 1946 "Great Calcutta Killing," to ban the publication of detailed riot reports did not apply to the reports ...
Calcutta's Edifice: The Buildings of a Great City
Calcutta's Edifice: The Buildings of a Great City
Brian Paul Bach, 2006
Major new study of Calcutta history and architecture, many beautiful color plates, first-class production. a goldmine of information.
Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects
Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects
Sato Tsugitaka, 2012
RIOT. Calcutta. in. August. 1946*. Nakazato. Nariaki. 1 Calcutta was plunged into a fury of Hindu–Muslim clashes exactly one ... the Calcutta Communal Riot of 1946 is often referred to as the 'Great Calcutta Killing'.5 The Calcutta disturbances ...
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Blog posts on the term
Great Calcutta Riot
Calcutta Communal Riot or Great Calcutta Killings - August 1946 - Old Indian Photos
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killing, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India. The region most affected by the violence was the densely populated sector of the city bounded by Park Circus and Lower Circular Road on the south, CIT Road on the east, Vivekananda Road on the north and Strand Road on the west.
www.oldindianphotos.in/2011/01/calcutta-communal-riot-or-great.html
More Calcutta News - RSSPump
Demi Moore was spotted attending a Mind and Life conference called 'Craving, Desire and Addiction' in McLeod Ganj, India. General secretary, rahul [...]
riots-in-india.rsspump.com/?key=2013110304027f.calcutta-news
Anti-freedom riots in India: Calcutta US Consulate office evacuated - Atlas Shrugs
It's freedom vs. fascism. Enlightenment vs primitiveness. It's the fight of our lives. It's there, it's here, it's everywhere. ‘Innocence of Muslims’ sparks protest in Kolkata. Employees evacuated from Kolkata US Consulate office Hindu Existence Muslims invaded Kolkata to protest over anti-Islam Film and marched towards in US Consulate Office to frighten all concerned HE KOLKATA BUREAU | 28 Sept. 2012 :: Now, it has been proved that the Muslims of Bengal can invade Kolkata as per their wish and can capture Kolkata in a moment. On 27-09-2012, at least 50000 Muslims from southern districts of 24 Parganas, Howrah , Hoogly, Nadia, Mushidabad and East Medinipur marched towards the American Centre (American Consulate) at Kolkata to protest against an anti-Islam video/film and to demand that the US authorities apologise for it. While Mr Pathasarathi Ghosh, Joint Commissioner of Kolkata Police, ascertained 40-50 thousand gathering in this anti US congregation, the organizers claimed that at least 100000 devout Muslims participated in the largest protest ever in the recent time against the anti Islamic film, “Innocence of Muslims”. The protestors, belonging to Muslim organisations, including All India Minorities Forum (AIMF), All-Bengal Minorities Youth Federation, All Bengal Minority Council, Furfura Sarrif Seva Foundation, Sunnatul Jamayet Committee, All India Milli Council, Jamiate Ulemaye Bangla, Furfura Sharif Minority Committee, West Bengal Madrasha Union and some 12-14 other fundamental Muslim groups, broke barricades, street decors and tried to approach the highly-fortified American Centre on Chowringee, but were stopped some distance away tactfully, police sources said. However, the huge gathering forced the Consulate authorities to evacuate all the employees of this American high office to avoid any untoward incidents. The protest grid-locked traffic bumper-to-bumper on Chowringhee and C R avenue in central Kolkata and had a ripple effect elsewhere, including the south and the north in the Kolkata metropolis. The protesters raised the slogans against the American, Israel and Indian authorities in a row for their blasphemous and Anti Islamic activities as alleged. They demanded immediate ban on the impugned anti Islamic film as well as prosecute the makers of the film which tampered the character of Prophet Mohammad. The protesters carried the placards demanding the ” DEATH OF BARACK OBAMA’ and “IMMEDIATE REMOVAL OF AMERICAN BASES FROM ISLAMIC COUNTRIES”. The protesters coming from the urban Kolkata, Rajarhat, Mograhat, Bashirhat, Berachanpa areas frightened the common public and broke traffic rules in many places, when they were gathering...
atlasshrugs2000.typepad.com/atlas_shrugs/2012/10/anti-freedom-riots-in-india-calcutta-us-consulate-office-evacuated.html
On cricket, riots, trust, customers and advocacy – confused of calcutta
It was my first-ever cricket match. India versus West Indies, 31 December 1966 – 5 January 1967.
confusedofcalcutta.com/2013/03/15/on-cricket-riots-trust-customers-and-advocacy/
The Amboy Times: Muslims Riot in Calcutta
Like the Danish Cartoon Jihad, large groups of Muslims riot over simple criticism. Troops have been deployed in the Indian city of Calcutta after protests over a controversial writer turned into riots. Police using tear gas and baton charges were...
amboytimes.typepad.com/the_amboy_times/2007/11/muslims-riot-in.html
Communalism Watch: India: Not just survivors, nation needs to mourn 1984 riots: Jaspreet Singh
The Times of India Not just survivors, nation needs to mourn 1984 riots: Jaspreet Singh Malini Nair, Oct 27, 2013, 06. 44AM IST Tags: survivors| Rahul Gandhi| Primo Levi| Jawaharlal Nehru| Jaspreet Singh| 1984 anti-Sikh riots Facts, fiction and pure chemistry merge in Canadian research scientist-turned-writer Jaspreet Singh's novel, 'Helium' , based on the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
communalism.blogspot.com/2013/11/india-not-just-survivors-nation-needs.html
Indian Strategic Studies: Anatomy of a riot
Sep 25, 2013 S. K.
strategicstudyindia.blogspot.com/2013/09/anatomy-of-riot.html
Late Night Cafe: Direct Action Day 1946
Late Night Cafe
smileinseconds.blogspot.com/2013/10/direct-action-day-1946.html
My own thoughts: Communal Award -- A Look into Muslim Reservaion 2010
Direct Action on 16 Aug 1946 by Muslim League On demand of PAKISTANDirect Action Day, Calcutta 1946 - 'We shall have India divided or India destroyed' declares Jinnah Direct Action Day or the Great Calcutta killings started on August 16, 1946. It was a day when the Muslim League planned peaceful protests all over India to voice the Muslim demand for a separate homeland during the Indian Freedom Struggle against the British Raj.
mrinalkantipal.blogspot.com/2010/09/communal-award-look-into-muslim.html
Subrata Biswas: Muzaffarnagar Riots, aCurator
www.acurator.com/blog/2013/10/subrata-biswas-muzaffarnagar-riots.html
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