LTNP
Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), less commonly called elite controllers, are rare individuals who are infected with HIV, but control the infection without antiretroviral therapy. Many of these patients have been HIV positive for 30 years without progressing to the point of needing to take medication in order not to develop AIDS.[citation needed] They have been the subject of a great deal of research, since an understanding of their ability to control HIV infection may lead to the development of immune therapies or a therapeutic vaccine.
Long-term nonprogressors typically have viral loads under 10,000 copies RNA/ml blood, do not take antiretrovirals, and have CD4+ counts within the normal range. Most people with HIV not on medication have viral loads which are much higher.
It is estimated that around 1 in 300 people with HIV are long-term nonprogressors. Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. The clinical relevance of the classification "Long-term non-progressor" is not definitive because some patients classified in this category have gone on to develop AIDS. It is likely, however, that these patients were not true LTNP patients.
Genetic traits that confer greater resistance or more robust immune response to HIV are thought to explain why LTNP patients progress to the point of needing to take medication in order not to develop AIDS more slowly than most HIV-infected people. Some LTNP are infected with a weakened or inactive form of HIV, but it is now known that many LTNP patients carry a fully virulent form of the virus. Genetic traits that may affect progression include:
- Gene mutation. A mutation in the FUT2 gene affects the progression of HIV-1 infection. 20% of Europeans who have that mutation are called "non secretor" because of their absence of a certain type of antigen that provide also a strong resistance against norovirus
- Mitochondrial DNA. Different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in humans may increase or a decrease rates of AIDS progression. Haplotypes associated with more loosely coupled mitochondrial respiration, with reduced ATP and ROS generation, have been associated with faster progression and vice versa.
- Receptor mutations. A low percentage of long-term nonprogressors have been shown to have inherited mutations of the CCR5 receptor of T cell lymphocytes. HIV uses CCR5 to enter these cells. It is believed that the Δ32 (delta 32) variant of CCR5 impairs HIV ability to infect cells and cause disease. An understanding of this mechanism led to the development of a class of HIV medicines, the entry inhibitors. The presence of this mutation, however, is not a unifying theme among LTNPs and is observed in an exceedingly small number of these patients.
- HLA type has also been correlated with long-term non-progressor cohorts. In particular, strong correlations have been found between possessing the class 1 HLA-B*5701, HLA-B*5703, and/or HLA-B*2705 alleles and ability to exert control over HIV.
- Antibody production. All individuals with HIV make antibodies against the virus. In most patients, broadly neutralizing antibodies do not emerge until approximately 2-4 years after the initial infection. At this point, the latent reservoir has already been established and the presence of broadly neutralizing antibodies is not enough to prevent disease progression. In some rare patients, these antibodies emerge earlier and can result in a delayed disease course. These patients, however, are not typically classified as LTNPs, but rather as slow progressors, who will eventually develop AIDS. Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies in healthy individuals is a potential strategy for a preventive HIV vaccine, as is the elicitation of these antibodies through rationally designed immunogens. Direct production of these antibodies in somatic tissue through plasmid transfection also pose a viable method for making these antibodies available in a large number of humans.[citation needed]
- APOBEC3G protein production. In a small number of people infected with HIV, the virus is naturally suppressed without medical treatment. These people may carry high quantities of a protein called APOBEC3G that disrupts viral replication in cells. APOBEC3G, or "A3" for short, is a protein that sabotages reverse transcription, the process HIV relies on for its replication. This process involves the virus transcribing its singe-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA that is incorporated into the cell's genome. A3 usually stops dormant viruses in the human genome, called endogenous retroviruses, from reawakening and causing infections.

This is an excerpt from the article LTNP from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article LTNP at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 11 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 05/04/2014)
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Long-term nonprogressor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. The clinical relevance of the classification "Long-term non-progressor" is not ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_nonprogressor
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HIV disease progression rates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, the term LTNP is a misnomer as that progression towards AIDS can occur even after 15 years of stable infection. LTNP are not a homogeneous group ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV_disease_progression_rates
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Prevalence of HIV-1 dual infection in LTNP-Elite Controllers.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 May 24. [Epub ahead of print]. Prevalence of HIV-1 dual infection in LTNP-Elite Controllers. Pernas M, Casado C, Sandonis ...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714744
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Thirty Years with HIV Infection—Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling ...
Mar 22, 2012 ... Thus, non-progression in LTNP and controllers may be due to different immunological mechanisms. Understanding the lack of disease ...
www.hindawi.com/journals/art/2012/161584/
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Those very few lucky ones: HIV Long Term Non-Progressors | The ...
Aug 24, 2011 ... But, there are a very few lucky ones, the so-called Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP), in whom HIV infection will not progress to AIDS.
www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/08/24/those-very-few-lucky-ones-hiv-long-term-non-progressors.html
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Zephyr L.T.N.P. Foundation, Inc. | Facebook
Zephyr L.T.N.P. Foundation, Inc. 167 likes · 0 talking about this. To provide a world-wide search and support network for HIV Controllers and Long-Term ...
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Few HIV-Positive People Can Control Disease Progression Without ...
Mar 5, 2012 ... In the current study, researchers from the United Kingdom aimed to estimate the number of LTNP and HIV controllers by analyzing data from a ...
www.aidsbeacon.com/news/2012/03/05/few-hiv-aids-positive-people-can-control-disease-progression-without-antiretrovirals/
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Zephyr Foundation
Please Donate! Please make a tax deductible donation to Zephyr LTNP Foundation, a 501(c)(3) entity via Paypal. No Paypal account required.
www.zephyrfoundation.org/
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Long Term Non-Progressor Cohort (LTNP) - Labs - Fred Hutchinson ...
labs.fhcrc.org/mcelrath/McElrath_lab_page/LTNP_page/index.html
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Urban Dictionary: LTNP
Long-Term Non-Progressor. Used to describe a small subset of HIV-positive people who are asymptomatic for decades. An LTNP doesn't need antiretrovi...
www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=LTNP
Search results for "LTNP"
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LTNP in science
Prevalence of HIV-1 dual infection in LTNP-Elite Controllers.
May 24, 2013 ... Prevalence of HIV-1 dual infection in LTNP-Elite Controllers. ... Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, IBiS/CSIC/SAS/University of Seville. Spain.
HIV long-term non-progressors maintain brisk CD8 T cell responses ...
HIV long-term non-progressors maintain brisk CD8 T cell responses to other viral ... and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, ...
Open label study to evaluate Complera in LTNP - University of ...
Research Question, By starting antiretroviral therapy among treatment naive HIV- 1 controllers will it result in a significant reduction of CD8+ T-cell immune ...
HIV-infected viremic long-term non-progressors and controllers ...
Nov 11, 2012 ... HIV-infected viremic long-term non-progressors and controllers display ... 1 Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Infectious Diseases, ...
Thirty Years with HIV Infection—Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling ...
Mar 22, 2012 ... Thus, non-progression in LTNP and controllers may be due to different ..... The authors thank the Novo Nordisk Foundation and University of ...
Long-term non-progressors - Relay
Nicole Bernard, Ph. D., is an assistant professor at McGill University and a member of ... By definition, a LTNP is a person whose CD4 count remains normal (i.e. ...
Long Term Non Progressors | McGill International ... - McGill University
Mar 27, 2013 ... McGill University Health Centre. 1650 Cedar Ave. Room L3.117. Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4. Office phone: (514) 934 1934 x44584. nicole [dot] ...
GuideStar Exchange Reports for Zephyr L T N P Foundation
Also Known As: Zephyr L T N P Foundation; Physical Address: Sacramento, CA .... Term Nonprogressors (Harvard, National Institutes of Health, University of ...
Retrovirology | Full text | Preferential targeting of co-evolving Gag ...
Sep 13, 2012 ... 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA ... in a cohort of 9 Long-term non-progressors (LTNPs, VL
Are Long-Term Non-Progressors Very Slow Progressors? Insights ...
Feb 20, 2012 ... HIC are a subset of LTNP who additionally have undetectable viraemia. ... Editor: Alan Landay, Rush University, United States of America.
Books on the term LTNP
HIV/AIDS: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 ...
HIV/AIDS: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 ...
2013
According to news reporting originating from Madrid, Spain, by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, “Studies in long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) have suggested that the quality of the CD8(+) response may involve protective human ...
LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations
LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations
Jimmie Hill and Michael Lewis, 1997
The LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations is a unique reference book aimed at all learners of English at intermediate level and above. It is not a traditional dictionary. It lists collocations- words and the words which regularly combine with them. Knowing strong and frequent collocations is essential for accurate, natural English. This dictionar...
AIDS Pathogenesis
AIDS Pathogenesis
H. Schuitemaker, Frank Miedema, 2000
cases of persistently high plasma viral levels without immunologic or clinical progression, LTNPs are best defined as the subgroup of individuals with persistently high CD4 counts and low plasma viral levels in the absence of anti- retroviral ...
English Vocabulary Organiser: 100 Topics for Self Study (LTP Organiser Series)
English Vocabulary Organiser: 100 Topics for Self Study (LTP Organiser Series)
Chris Gough, 2000
ENGLISH VOCABULARY ORGANISER is the most comprehensive vocabulary self-study book currently available. It organizes vocabulary into 100 topics and is the ideal book to recommend to all intermediate and upper level students. It will be invaluable to anyone preparing to take an English examination.
Primate Lentiviruses—Advances in Research and Application: ...
Primate Lentiviruses—Advances in Research and Application: ...
2012
According to the authors of recent research from London, United Kingdom, “ Define and identify long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) and HIV controllers (HIC), and estimate time until disease progression. LTNP are HIV-1(+) patients who maintain ...
Taboos and Issues: Photocopiable Lessons on Controversial Topics (LTP Instant Lessons)
Taboos and Issues: Photocopiable Lessons on Controversial Topics (LTP Instant Lessons)
Richard MacAndrew and Ron Martinez, 2001
TABOOS AND ISSUES is the latest in the series of photocopiable Teachers' Resource Books. It covers many serious issues which are usually, and quite reasonably, considered unsuitable for inclusion in general coursebooks. It provides the opportunity for adults to discuss controversial issues.
HIV/AIDS: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2012 ...
HIV/AIDS: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2012 ...
2012
According to the authors of a study from Madrid, Spain, “Studies in long-term non- progressors (LTNP) have suggested that the quality of the CD8(+) response may involve protective human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. However ...
LTP mechanisms in the dentate gyrus in vivo: BDNF signaling, translation control, and gene function
LTP mechanisms in the dentate gyrus in vivo: BDNF signaling, translation control, and gene function
Tambudzai Kanhema, 2009
This book illustrates some of the various molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity in a subfield of the rat hippocampus called dentate gyrus (DG). Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a well- known model for studying strengthening of synaptic plasticity. In this study, LTP was induced in the DG by intrahippocampal infusion of brain-derived ne...
Models of Protection Against HIV/SIV: Avoiding AIDS in ...
Models of Protection Against HIV/SIV: Avoiding AIDS in ...
Gianfranco Pancino, Guido Silvestri, Keith R. Fowke, 2012
Differential CD8D Epitope Specificity in HESNs The phenomena of both relative HIV resistance (RHR) and long-term HIV non-progressive infection (LTNP) have been associated with specific class I HLA alleles, although these associations ...
Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults, Study Edition: Complete text of the rite together with additional rites...
Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults, Study Edition: Complete text of the rite together with additional rites...
International Commission English Liturgy and Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy, 1988
This book is the RCIA! Exactly like LTP's ritual edition in size and pagination, this study edition enables everyone involved with the RCIA to have a working copy of the entire document. With ample margins for notes, sturdy but flexible binding, clearly numbered paragraphs in the introduction and texts, this edition is for study, reflection, a...
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Blog posts on the term
LTNP
Annyeonghase-yo!: LTNP (Long Time No Post)
Whoa it's been almost a year since I last posted something here! I have been really busy with work so I haven't updated in a long time (and I think not having a laptop is also one reason -_- sigh). Anyway, I'm back! I plan to be (a little bit) active since I miss talking about Korea and anything related to it so see you soon :).
misskoreya.blogspot.com/2013/06/ltnp-long-time-no-post.html
LTNP » Operation: Shamu Plushy
lotius.net/?p=45
Hanzely Clan News: LTNP... (Long Time No Post)
I guess I have REALLY neglected my blog over the past several weeks. Who woulda thunk that a mom of five kids would lose track of her time and energy to get on the computer and keep the world updated on what is going on in her household?? Actually I really enjoyed stepping back from the computer and facebook for a few weeks.
hanzelyclan.blogspot.com/2012/01/ltnp-long-time-no-post.html
Twenty-One Outs Twice: LTNP
Long time no post. Sorry, folks.
twentyoneoutstwice.blogspot.com/2005/09/ltnp.html
NIGHT WALKER: LTNP!
To all cast, crew, family and friends of "Night Walker", the movie. Sorry for the long time between posts.
nightwalker2011.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/ltnp.html
LTNP (Long Time No Post) :D | Albert Tanoto
Hi again! It's been a while since I last posted. I had been busy with my work at school. I am on my December break right now and many stuff have been going on. Will post about it soon. Keep updated and have a nice day :D!
alberttanoto.wordpress.com/2012/12/08/ltnp-long-time-no-post-d/
American Girl Doll Lover: LTNP
LTNP! (long time no post!) he he! Well Merry Christmas and Happy New Year! A Christmas Miracle, I found the cord for my camera! I will be posting new and super cute pictures of my dolls! Happy 2011!New year means new doll! I would like to welcome. .
aglover123.blogspot.com/2011/01/ltnp.html
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