Lawful order
Superior orders, often known as the Nuremberg defense, lawful orders or by the German phrase "Befehl ist Befehl" ("orders are orders"), is a plea in a court of law that a person, whether a member of the armed forces or a civilian, not be held guilty for actions which were ordered by a superior officer or a public official.
The superior orders plea is often regarded as the complement to command responsibility.
One of the most noted uses of this plea, or "defense," was by the accused in the 1945–46 Nuremberg Trials, such that it is also called the "Nuremberg defense". The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the main victorious Allied forces after World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany. It was during these trials, under the London Charter of the International Military Tribunal which set them up, that the defense of superior orders was no longer considered enough to escape punishment; but merely enough to lessen punishment.
Historically, the plea of superior orders has been used both before and after the Nuremberg Trials, with a notable lack of consistency in various rulings.
Apart from the specific plea of Superior Orders, discussions about how the general concept of superior orders ought to be used, or ought not to be used, have taken place in various arguments, rulings and Statutes that have not necessarily been part of “after the fact” war crimes trials, strictly speaking. Nevertheless these discussions and related events help us understand the evolution of the specific plea of superior orders and the history of its usage.

This is an excerpt from the article Lawful order from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Lawful order at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 82 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 05/12/2014)
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Article 92—Failure to obey order or regulation
(1) violates or fails to obey any lawful general order or regulation;. (2) having knowledge of any other Lawful order issued by a member of the armed forces, which ...
usmilitary.about.com/od/punitivearticles/a/mcm92.htm
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Lawful order? - Yahoo! Answers
A Lawful order is an order given to you by someone appointed over you by higher authority which you are legally bound to obey and that does not require you to ...
answers.yahoo.com/question/?qid=20071125144754AAfXXsj
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"Failure to follow a lawful order" - Police Forums & Law ...
I'm a little curious just how to define, Failure to follow a Lawful order. Most of the time I see it mentioned it's in regards to someone interferring.
forums.officer.com/t98821/
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What is a lawful order in the army - Wiki Answers
A Lawful order is any order given by a superior officer. With the exception of orders that violate military regulation. A common misconception is that only certain ...
wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_lawful_order_in_the_army
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Is the definition of a lawful order in the UCMJ If so, where - JustAnswer
Question - Is the definition of a Lawful order in the UCMJ If so, where - NS. Find the answer to this and other Military Law questions on JustAnswer.
www.justanswer.com/military-law/296q8-definition-lawful-order-ucmj-so.html
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Lawful Orders vs. Direct Orders - Leatherneck.com
My Co. 1stSgt said something about the difference between a Lawful order and a direct order. What is the difference? Also what are MCOs ...
www.leatherneck.com/forums/showthread.php?37624-Lawful-Orders-vs-Direct-Orders
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lawful - Legal Dictionary - The Free Dictionary
Definition of lawful in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... lawful interest, lawwul issue, Lawful order, lawful possession, lawful process, ...
legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/lawful
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Question of what is a lawful order? - MilitaryTimes Forums
Aug 23, 2012 ... Greetings, I was looking for some opinions of fellow Marines on this topic. I have a specific case in mind, is it a Lawful order for a senior Marine ...
forums.militarytimes.com/showthread.php?1594153-Question-of-what-is-a-lawful-order
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Arrested in Austin, TX for Disobeying a Lawful Order to "Stop ...
Apr 30, 2013 ... All of the sudden, this rogue officer told me I was under arrest for disobeying a Lawful order. My recording device was confiscated.
www.copblock.org/30870/arrested-in-austin-tx-for-disobeying-a-lawful-order-to-stop-photographing-and-leave-the-area/
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US military: unconstitutional orders are unlawful; defend Americans ...
Dec 20, 2011 ... The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Article 92 makes US military duty clear to obey Lawful orders. The primary source for Lawful orders ...
www.washingtonsblog.com/2011/12/us-military-unconstitutional-orders-are-unlawful-defend-americans-dont-ndaa-disappear-them.html
Search results for "Lawful order"
Google: approx. 7.120.000
Lawful order in science
On the November 9 Stay-Away Orders: The University and its ...
Mar 21, 2012 ... written by three people among the thirteen charged We are graduate students and teachers at UC Berkeley. Like thousands of other people ...
Verification of Lawful Presence - University System of Georgia
Feb 22, 2013 ... Each University System institution shall verify the lawful presence in the ... In order for a student to be admitted to one of the universities falling ...
WAC 478-124-020: Conduct on campus code—Prohibited conduct.
(d) Refusal to comply with any Lawful order to leave the university campus or any portion thereof;. (e) Possession or use of firearms, explosives, dangerous ...
Leo Carroll - University of Rhode Island
The University of Rhode Island ... Ph.D., Brown University ... Lawful order was named the Outstanding Book by a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice ...
Appendix D - Student Life - Northern Arizona University
Refusing to obey a Lawful order given pursuant to subsection B of this section. ... This subsection shall not apply to private universities, colleges, high schools or ...
[PDF]WAC 478-120-020 Standards of Conduct (1) The University is a ...
any person where such property is located on the University campus;. (e) Refusal to comply with any Lawful order to leave the University campus or any.
[PDF]University Policy #2050 - Boise State University
B. Exhibits Disruptive Behavior. C. Ignores Lawful orders, which includes the failure to disperse or leave; disrupting or obstructing a university building or facility, ...
Parking Services - Tarleton State University
No person shall fail or refuse to comply with any Lawful order or directions of any University police officer (regarding direction, control, or regulation of traffic.) ...
Florida Atlantic University Charges Student Editor with 'Refusing to ...
Sep 28, 2013 ... Administrators at Florida Atlantic University have charged the editor-in-chief ... Rather than complying with my Lawful orders to depart the scene, ...
Daily Kos: On tangling with cops and the duty to obey lawful orders
Feb 19, 2009 ... Essentially, you failed to obey a Lawful order from a public safety officer. ...... First off, at a university speaker's event, it's common practice for the ...
Books on the term Lawful order
Lawful Order: A Case Study of Correctional Crisis and Reform (Current Issues in Criminal Justice)
Lawful Order: A Case Study of Correctional Crisis and Reform (Current Issues in Criminal Justice)
Leo Carroll, 1999
Prisons remain a controversial topic for debate in our society. While few doubt the necessity of their existence, there is considerable debate over their purpose, organization, and processes. Do prisons exist to rehabilitate, punish, or simply incarcerate? How do we judge prison conditions? If those conditions are found to be unacceptable, how do w...
American Bankruptcy Reports: Annotated ... Reporting the ...
American Bankruptcy Reports: Annotated ... Reporting the ...
William Miller Collier, Mark L. Whitney, James Webster Eaton, 1909
If the property is not a part of the estate, obviously no Lawful order for its delivery to the trustee can be made. If the money or property in controversy was a part of the estate of the bankrupt, but before the order for its delivery is made he has ...
Ameritopia: The Unmaking of America
Ameritopia: The Unmaking of America
Mark R. Levin, 2012
“The companion book to Liberty and Tyranny. . . . Levin’s analysis is deadly to liberalism. . . . Ameritopia is historical X-ray vision in book form.” —Jeffrey Lord, The American Spectator“A must-read for Americans of all political persuasions. . . . An honest discussion of the dangers presently facing our country. . . . Levin does a fantastic job....
The public health service: speech of Hon. John D. Works of ...
The public health service: speech of Hon. John D. Works of ...
John Downey Works, 1915
best interests of the service. It was an order which It was the duty of the commanding officer of the Delaware to see carried out. The department Itself preferred the charge against Kapsa of refusing to obey the Lawful order of his superior officer, ...
Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice (Ethics in Crime and Justice)
Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice (Ethics in Crime and Justice)
Joycelyn M. Pollock, 2013
Packed with current, real-world examples, ETHICAL DILEMMAS AND DECISIONS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE offers comprehensive, balanced, and practical coverage of ethics across all three arms of the criminal justice system: the police, the courts, and corrections. Readers not only find coverage of the philosophical principles and theories that are the very fou...
Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign ...
Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign ...
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, United States. 57th Congress, 1st session, 1901-1902. House. [from old catalog], 1902
I do not quite understand the distinction you make between a Lawful order and an illegal order in reference to this. Mr. Kernan. The distinction? It is this: The Commission makes an order. Suppose the carrier believes, and ultimately establishes ...
Order 66 (Star Wars, Vol. 4)
Order 66 (Star Wars, Vol. 4)
Karen Traviss, 2009
Karen Traviss is the #1 New York Times bestselling author of three previous Star Wars: Republic Commando novels: Hard Contact, Triple Zero, and True Colors; three Star Wars: Legacy of the Force novels: Bloodlines, Revelation, and Sacrifice; as well as City of Pearl, Crossing the Line, The World Before, Matriarch, Ally, and Judge. A former defense c...
Naval digest, containing digests of selected decisions of ...
Naval digest, containing digests of selected decisions of ...
Judge Advocate General (Navy)., 1916
See General Order No. 110, July 27, 1914, 8; Findings, 2. 21. Same— Charged with "Desertion"— Found guilty in a less degree than charged. See Guilty in a Less Degree than Charged, 1, 17, 18. 22. "Disobeying the Lawful order" etc.
Lawful Orders
Lawful Orders
Jonathan P. Tomes, 2012
Lawful orders gives an insider's view of the military justice system that explores the question of what happens when a military officer disobeys a lawful but stupid order. While a student at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the novel's main character, Major James Thomas, faces court-martial char...
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Blog posts on the term
Lawful order
Weekend of Protests in DC - Lawful Orders to Close Access? | The SUA Blog | Stand Up America US
What is a Lawful order? When there is an open air monument that is owned by the people, is it lawful for any administration, for any non-emergency reason, to order it to be barricaded, or to order officers to prevent entry to it? What if the visitors were all on foot, or in a wheel chair?
www.standupamericaus.org/politics-washington-dc/weekend-of-protests-in-dc-lawful-orders-to-close-access/
US Military: no lawful orders exist for unlawful wars; arrest those who issue them | Washington's Blog
Posted on September 9, 2013 by Carl Herman.
www.washingtonsblog.com/2013/09/us-military-no-lawful-orders-exist-for-unlawful-wars-arrest-those-who-issue-them.html
Obama Continues to Purge Military Who Won’t Follow Un-lawful Order | PatriotsBillboard
October 19, 2013Freedom, Liberal/Progressive Politics, Media Bias & Corruption, National Security, Political CorruptionPatriotsBillboard.
patriotsbillboard.org/obama-continues-to-purge-military-who-wont-follow-un-lawful-order/
Southern National Guards ignore Hagel order on gay troop spouse IDs
A number of southern National Guards are ignoring a direct order from US Defense Sec. Chuck Hagel to provide IDs to the spouses of gay service members.
americablog.com/2013/11/southern-national-guards-ignore-hagel-order-gay-troop-spouse-ids.html
Lawful Rebellion | Void Orders
Time to smash apart the credibility of councils, courts and bailiffs by exposing the fraud in their recovery methods of debts that never existed.
www.lawfulrebellion.org/2013/10/23/void-orders/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=void-orders
Arrested in Austin, TX for Disobeying a Lawful Order to "Stop Photographing and Leave the Area" | Cop Block
www.copblock.org/30870/arrested-in-austin-tx-for-disobeying-a-lawful-order-to-stop-photographing-and-leave-the-area/
US Military: no lawful orders exist for unlawful wars; arrest ‘leaders’ who issue them | USA Partisan
See on Scoop.it - Liberty RevolutionUS military and families: the Oath of Enlistment is the military’s honor and foundation of armed service: “defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic.”Basic training includes instruction to refuse unLawful orders, with officers authorized to arrest those who issue them. The most important unLawful order to recognize is…
usapartisan.com/2013/09/09/us-military-no-lawful-orders-exist-for-unlawful-wars-arrest-leaders-who-issue-them/
Question of what is a lawful order?
Greetings, I was looking for some opinions of fellow Marines on this topic. I have a specific case in mind, is it a Lawful order for a senior Marine to tell a junior Marine he can't wear appropriate civilian PT gear to a rainbow PT section event?
forums.militarytimes.com/showthread.php?1594153-Question-of-what-is-a-lawful-order
Is it Legal to Disobey a Lawful Order?
Obey vs. Disobey obey late 13c., from O.Fr. obeir, from L. oboedire "obey, pay attention to, give ear," lit. "listen to," from ob &
www.isitlegalto.com/united-states-laws/10206-legal-disobey-lawful-order.html
Spy chief Clapper: We've been snooping on our friends for years - U.S. News
The nation's top intelligence official told Congress on Tuesday that the U.S. has been snooping on friendly foreign leaders for years, and getting spied on by allies in return.
usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/10/29/21233196-us-intelligence-gathering-has-been-lawful-spy-chief-clapper
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