Lineback cattle
Lineback Dairy Cattle is a dual breed of cattle, derived from the Holstein breed, and to whom the Randall cattle bear a strong resemblance. While not a commonplace breed, they are found in small numbers as "productive pets" amid larger numbers of other dairy cattle breeds on dairy farms throughout North America.
Known for their distinctive colour-sided coloration, the Lineback has a black base and nose with a skunk-like white stripe or finching along the spine. Due to the rarity of the pure-strain breed, variations such as red lineback and animals with a heavily speckled pelt instead of a distinct stripe occur from time to time.
The breed is often cross bred to other dairy cattle, though the coloration trait is generally dominant in offspring

History of Lineback Dairy Cattle-“A Well-Marked Breed”(by Robert Gear 1986)
Cattle with "Lineback" color patterns have occurred throughout the world in many breeds. In the Texas Longhorn and some African breeds, the Lineback patterns occur randomly. In breeds such as the English Longhorn, Gloucester, Pinzgauer, Vosgienne, and the Moiled cattle of Ireland, the Lineback pattern in some form is their identifying characteristic. And still others, such as the native Welsh breed, consistently display several “color phases“, of which the "Lineback" is one.
Geneticists recognize two variations of the Lineback Dairy Cattle. The first, is known as Gloucester, in which the animal has a dark, usually black or red body with a white dorsal stripe, possibly a star on the face, white tail and belly, and perhaps one or more garters or white bands around the legs, where they join the body. The other, known as Witrick separates into 3 major types of “Witrick’s” the White classic Witrick, Dark-Sided Witrick, and Dark Specked Witrick. The White Classic Witrick is more prevalent type and has a lot more white on the body and face, followed with black or red eyes, nose and ears, but Witrick’s of all patterns can be found with much "speckling or brockling" on the face, body, and legs. The brockling may be in the form of round or elliptical spots or roaning or both. Of the variations found, the Witrick variety predominating over the Gloucester.
The English Longhorn, Irish Moiled, Norwegian Telemark, Swedish Mountain, and Dutch Witrick have the Witrick as their characteristic marking, while the Gloucester pattern in which brockling does not occur is exemplified by the English Old Gloucester and the Austrian Pinzgauer.
It is reasonable to assume that Linebacks were among the cattle imported into the U.S. in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Dutch were bringing cattle into New York at a time when the Witrick was plentiful, while many British ships coming to America were sailing from Bristol, a geographically convenient port for the export of Gloucester and Welsh cattle. Considering that livestock of all classes has been imported to the United States, it is not surprising that we have our own "Dairy Lineback breed".
During the 19th century progressive American farmers began to look again to Europe for improved stock, including Ayrshires, Friesians, Herefords and Milking Shorthorns, all of which were capable of throwing occasional linebacked offspring. There breeds, plus the English Longhorn, probably contributed to the Lineback presence in the United States.
Following World War II, in the stampede for bigger yields, dairy farmers increasingly began to use Holstein bulls to "upgrade" their herds. In New England these herds were often the old unimproved Durhams or Milking Shorthorns, but in New York and the Midwest, as well as much of northern Vermont and neighboring Canada, there were many herds of Linebacks of both types which were graded up with Holstein bulls. Because the Lineback patterns are genetically strong and the Holstein pattern is weak, the Lineback will often persist through many generations of outcrossing.
The sources from which our stock derive and the periods when their ancestors entered our agricultural history are conjectural and likely not be resolved fully, as documentation is almost nonexistent. Today there are several thousand Lineback dairy cows in the United States, some of them essentially Holsteins, some from Milking Shorthorn or other backgrounds, and some quite unique!

History of "The Lineback Dairy Cow"
Originating mainly from Holland, Europe in the 1700-1800's, Lineback’s first appeared in America when English and Hollanders settled in the country. Lineback’s were a very dual-purpose animal, fulfilling the owners' needs for both milk and meat. As time went on into the 1900s, farmers started to specialize in either beef or dairy production. The Lineback has over time been selected for improved dairy production due to there “high components“, although it remains a very versatile breed, that was and is heavily influenced by Holstein Blood.
The current "Idealistic Lineback Cow"
The “Lineback cow” has been up-bred to be a very productive dairy cow. Still occasionally influenced by Holstein blood this genetically superior breed has remained versatile enough to be prevalent in these demanding modern times. Today there are several thousand Lineback dairy cows in the United States.
The term “Lineback”
The use of the word “Lineback” refers to both appearance and breed. The common factor of all the patters is the white line across the back, the dark solid color of the ears and nose, outlining of the eyes and one or more dark hooves. “Red and white” or “Black and white” are the predominant “color” patterns.
Characteristics of “The Lineback Dairy Cow”
Longevity
Durability
Good Feet and Legs
Super Mammary systems
Good Dairy Character
Suited well for Grazing and Free-stall housing
Capable of;
High Production
High Protein and Fat

Lineback Color Patterns
There are various color patterns found in the Lineback breed,
Classic White Witrick (most dominate pattern)
Dark-Sided Witrick
Dark-Speckle Witrick
Gloucester (white garters at top of legs)

This is an excerpt from the article Lineback cattle from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Lineback cattle at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 352 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/22/2014)
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Lineback cattle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lineback cattle is a dual breed of cattle, derived from the Holstein breed, and to whom the Randall cattle bear a strong resemblance. While not a commonplace ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lineback_cattle
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American Lineback Dairy Cattle Registry
American Lineback Dairy Cattle Association. joinus. ... Current members enjoy a lower fee for registering their Lineback cattle and receive a tri-yearly newsletter.
americanlinebacks.tripod.com/
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American Livestock Breeds Conservancy: Randall Lineback Cattle
The Randall Lineback is a purebred remnant of lineback-patterned cattle once ... in New England from a combination of Dutch, English, and French cattle.
www.albc-usa.org/cpl/randall.html
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Randall Linebacks: New England's Own Heritage Cattle
Randall Lineback cattle are one of the most endangered bovine breeds in the United States. Find out how you can help preserve this amazing breed.
www.hobbyfarms.com/livestock-and-pets/randall-cattle.aspx
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The Randall (Lineback) Cattle Story, Cynthia's Randall Cattle Pages
The Randall (Lineback) Story, Cynthia's involvement in the rescue of the Randall (Lineback) cattle breed. The history of the rescue, photos, Cynthia's life with ...
www.cynthiasrandallcattle.com/page1.html
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A General History of Randall Lineback Cattle
Today's Randall Lineback breed of cattle is the last survivor of the once numerous “all-purpose” local landrace breeds of cattle that became popular throughout ...
www.randalllineback.com/history.html
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The Randall Cattle Registry, Inc., The Rare Breed Formerly Known ...
Home Page of The Randall Cattle Registry, Inc., and the Randall Cattle Breed ... of Randall Cattle, The Rare Breed Formerly Known as Randall Lineback cattle.
www.randallcattleregistry.org/
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Randall Cattle Frequently Asked Questions Page
Randall cattle are a critically rare breed of cattle native to the United States. ... Randall cattle do have a "colorsided" lineback color pattern, but this pattern is not  ...
www.randallcattleregistry.org/page4.html
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American Lineback | The Dairy Crossbred Blog
Jun 30, 2011 ... You can check out the different patterns on the American Lineback Dairy Cattle Association website. Only calves and cows with Lineback ...
dairyxbred.com/2011/06/30/american-lineback/
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Randall Blue Lineback Cattle: Heritage Livestock Breeds ...
The Randall Blue Lineback breed is good-natured and intelligent, and they're perfectly suited to alternative agriculture systems.
www.motherearthnews.com/homesteading-and-livestock/randall-blue-lineback-cattle-heritage-livestock-zeylaf.aspx
Search results for "Lineback cattle"
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Lineback cattle in science
The Randall (Lineback) Cattle Story, Cynthia's Randall Cattle Pages
Like most city kids, the cows I saw were on TV, in photos, or through car windows. Our house was four blocks from the main campus of the University of ...
Randall Blue Lineback Cattle: Heritage Livestock Breeds ...
The Randall Blue Lineback breed is good-natured and intelligent, and they're perfectly suited to alternative agriculture systems.
On the Danger List: The Saga to Save the Randall Lineback Cattle ...
Jan 9, 2011 ... By Martha Herbert Izzi If passion on the part of a few dedicated champions is the key ingredient to saving a “critically endangered” heritage ...
Randall Cattle | JPR Acres, LLC
Randall Cattle. The Randall Lineback cattle that call our farm home have quite a history. ... New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001. Ekarius, Carol.
New genetic phenomenon discovered in Witrik cattle - Phys.org
Feb 14, 2012 ... By studying the DNA of Witrik, colour sided or lineback, cattle from various countries, scientists from the University of Liege have discovered that ...
Phys.org - cattle breeds
By studying the DNA of Witrik, colour sided or lineback, cattle from various countries, scientists from the University of Liege have discovered that pieces of DNA ...
[PDF]New genetic phenomenon discovered in Witrik cattle - Phys.org
Feb 14, 2012 ... By studying the DNA of Witrik, colour sided or lineback, cattle from various ... from the University of Liege have discovered that pieces of DNA ...
Rural Heritage - Breeds of Oxen
association—, American Jersey Cattle Association. web resource—, Oklahoma State University ... associations—, American Lineback Dairy Cattle Registry.
Genetic Phenomenon Discovered in Witrik Cattle - The Cattle Site
Mar 23, 2012 ... Scientists at the University of Liege discovered this phenomenon in Dutch Witrik cattle and in the colour-sided (or lineback) cattle from various ...
lineback cattle - Docstoc
483 results for "Lineback cattle" ... REVIEW OF CATTLE TYPE Harlan Ritchie Professor of Animal Science Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 2.
Books on the term Lineback cattle
The Field Guide to Cattle
The Field Guide to Cattle
Valerie Porter, 2008
There is mention of a white-backed cow in the Plymouth Colony in 1627, which is hardly surprising considering the ... In Vermont, local farmers formed a registry for American Lineback cattle in 1985, with one section for animals with the “G” ...
How to Raise Cattle: Everything You Need to Know, Updated & Revised (FFA)
How to Raise Cattle: Everything You Need to Know, Updated & Revised (FFA)
Philip Hasheider, 2013
No matter if your goal is to raise one cow or a larger herd of dairy or beef cattle, the expert advice in this revised and updated guidebook will tell you all you need to know. Philip Hasheider returns in this second edition of How to Raise Cattle to guide readers through beef and dairy operations from beginning to end. With more than 200 color pho...
The Family Cow Handbook: A Guide to Keeping a Milk Cow
The Family Cow Handbook: A Guide to Keeping a Milk Cow
Philip Hasheider, 2011
CHAPTEREI American Lineback The American Lineback takes its name from its unusual color pattern: black on the ... There are other color variations, which are a carryover from their Witrick, Gloucester, and Welsh cattle ancestry in England.
How To Raise Cattle: Everything You Need To Know
How To Raise Cattle: Everything You Need To Know
Hasheider, Philip, 2007
A few head of cattle or a large herd, a small farm or vast ranch, dairy cows or beef: Whatever your circumstances or objective, if you want to raise cattle, this book tells you all you need to know. A primer for the new farmer and a refresher for the veteran, How to Raise Cattle guides readers through beef and dairy operations from beginning to end...
The Backyard Cow: An Introductory Guide to Keeping a ...
The Backyard Cow: An Introductory Guide to Keeping a ...
Sue Weaver, 2012
RANDALL LINEBACK registry. Early registries recorded both dairyand beef-type cattle in their herd books, but in 1948 dairy breeders formed their own breed association. Today Milking Shorthorns and (beef) Shorthorns are two separate ...
The Backyard Cow: An Introductory Guide to Keeping a Productive Family Cow
The Backyard Cow: An Introductory Guide to Keeping a Productive Family Cow
Sue Weaver, 2012
Homegrown Dairy Products, Fresh from Your YardA single cow, carefully chosen for your needs and facilities, can live a healthy, contented life right in your backyard. Calm and friendly by nature, your cow will be a gentle companion and a valued contributor to your family's diet, producing more than enough milk to keep you out of your supermark...
How to Raise Cattle: Everything You Need to Know, Updated & ...
How to Raise Cattle: Everything You Need to Know, Updated & ...
Philip Hasheider, 2013
Cows recognize their offspring for a long time. ... Descended from cattle imported into the Americas by the Spanish. Smaller in body ... Randall/Randall Lineback— Purebred remnant of lineback-patterned cattle once common in New England.
The Field Guide to Cattle
The Field Guide to Cattle
Porter, Valerie and Stone, Lynn, 2008
The first full-color, illustrated pocket guide to North American cattle, this handy book profiles more than 60 breeds of beef, dairy, and draft cattle. Whether you are farming 50 head of cattle or raising one cow--or simply want to learn about where your milk and meat come from--this invaluable resource will tell you everything you need to know. Th...
Cattle Brands: A Collection of Western Camp-Fire Stories
Cattle Brands: A Collection of Western Camp-Fire Stories
Andy Adams, 2012
And the line-back beef and several other poker steers went along. The wintered herd of beeves were grazed across to Fort Peck in little less than three months. On reaching the agency, the cattle were in fine condition and ready to issue to the  ...
The Family Cow Handbook: A Guide to Keeping a Milk Cow
The Family Cow Handbook: A Guide to Keeping a Milk Cow
Philip Hasheider and Daniel Johnson, 2011
Keeping your own family milk cow brings simple joys—and hard work. This handbook shares the practical do’s and don’ts of choosing a cow, milking, feeding, cleaning, health maintenance, making dairy products, and assisting in birthing a calf. Challenges exist, but they are surmountable. Your sustainable lifestyle will reward you with everything from...
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Blog posts on the term
Lineback cattle
Eagles Media Center : American line back dairy cattle
Watch It. Read It. Click It.
www.eaglesmediacenter.com/featured/2013/04/26/13729/
Are you ready to own a Randall Lineback? : Randall Lineback Cattle
randall-linebacks.org/?p=127
Randall Lineback Calf - Buttonwood Park Zoo
bpzoo.org/2010/01/randall-lineback-calf/
Why Ted Turner is big on bison – Eatocracy - CNN.com Blogs
He's been called "Captain Outrageous," "The Mouth of the South," and this month, Ted Turner turns 75. Learn more about the founder of 24-hour news: Watch "Ted Turner: The Maverick Man" on CNN Sunday 7 p.m. ET.
eatocracy.cnn.com/2013/11/17/why-ted-turner-is-big-on-bison/
Randall Lineback Cows in Virginia
Randall Lineback Cows in Virginia
charlottesvillefarmsandland.com/index.php/2013/01/save-the-randall-lineback-by-eating-it/
Pedigree Dairy Breeds : Lineback ~ AgriTrue
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agritrue.blogspot.com/2012/08/pedigree-dairy-breedslineback.html
Heritage Breed: Randall Lineback | fishmonger vs. butcher
I've been without internet for the past week...sorry about that. Continuing the Heritage Breed topic with Randall Lineback cows. This breed is beautiful, docile, and versatile. Originally developed in New England, they were used for beef, dairy, and as all purpose oxen. Today, there are less than 150 individuals across the country, a few of…
fishmongervsbutcher.wordpress.com/2012/11/04/heritage-breed-randall-lineback/
Trying to find my voice in Australia; AC/DC helps | barfblog
Posted on December 12, 2013 by Doug Powell.
barfblog.com/2013/12/trying-to-find-my-voice-in-australia-acdc-helps/
Genetic Phenomenon Discovered in Witrik Cattle - The Cattle Site
NETHERLANDS - DNA fragments can move from one chromosome to another as a circular strand. Scientists at the University of Liege discovered this phenomenon in Dutch Witrik cattle and in the colour-sided (or lineback) cattle from various countries. Prior to this discovery, this phenomenon had not been identified previously in mammals. These research results were published in early February in the scientific journal Nature.
www.thecattlesite.com/news/37938/genetic-phenomenon-discovered-in-witrik-cattle
The Skinny on our Cows | Views from the Drumlin
Posted on June 24, 2013 by Mass Audubon.
blogs.massaudubon.org/viewsfromthedrumlin/the-skinny-on-our-cows/
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