Liu Shan
Liu Shan (207–271),style name Gongsi, was the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. As he ascended the throne at the age of 16, Liu Shan was entrusted to the care of the Chancellor Zhuge Liang and Imperial Secretariat Li Yan. During Liu Shan's reign, many campaigns were led against the rival state of Cao Wei, primarily by Zhuge Liang and his successor Jiang Wei, but to little avail. Liu Shan eventually surrendered to Wei in 263 after Deng Ai led a surprise attack on the Shu capital Chengdu. He was quickly relocated to Luoyang, capital of Wei, and enfeoffed as "Duke Anle". There he enjoyed his last years peacefully before dying, most probably of natural causes, in 271.
Widely known by his infant name "Adou / Edou", Liu Shan was commonly perceived as an incapable, even mentally handicapped ruler. He was also accused of indulging in pleasures while neglecting state affairs. Some critics, however, believe that Liu Shan, like his father Liu Bei, had excellent people management skills, being able to balance the interests of the two major factions in his court, headed respectively by Zhuge Liang and Li Yan. These critics also praise Liu Shan for feigning incompetence in the most ingenious and natural way after the fall of Shu so as to avoid personal harm. Nevertheless, the name "Adou" is today still commonly used to describe incapable people who would not achieve anything even with significant assistance.
Liu Shan's given name, when combined with that of Liu Feng, whom Liu Bei adopted before Liu Shan's birth, would become "fengshan" (封禪), meaning "to ascend the throne in a ceremony". Scholars such as Yi Zhongtian believe that this is a subtle indication of Liu Bei's (hidden) ambition to become an emperor, even long before the abdication of Emperor Xian, the last ruler of the Han Dynasty. This undermines Liu Bei's claim that he was forced to declare himself emperor so as to carry on the lineage of the Han Dynasty.
As Chen Shou, the author of Records of Three Kingdoms, noted, contrary to tradition, Zhuge Liang banned official historians at Liu Shan's court, and after Zhuge's death, it appeared Liu did not revive that post. Therefore many of the events during his reign were unrecorded, causing limited details about Liu Shan's reign in historical records.

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Liu Shan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Liu Shan (207–271), courtesy name Gongsi, was the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. As he ascended the ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Shan
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Liu Shan - Koei Wiki - Wikia.com
Liu Shan (onyomi: Ryū Zen) is Liu Bei's eldest son and successor. Even when named figurehead...
koei.wikia.com/wiki/Liu_Shan
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Liu Shan/Weapons - The Koei Wiki - Dynasty Warriors, Samurai ...
Here is a collection of Liu Shan's weapons in the Warriors series. Contents[show] Weapons...
koei.wikia.com/wiki/Liu_Shan/Weapons
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liu shan on Tumblr
Find and follow posts tagged Liu Shan on Tumblr. ... #Liu Shan#Dynasty Warriors · 44 notes. gameboohorrordualscream. #dynasty warriors#Liu Shan#ma ...
www.tumblr.com/tagged/liu-shan
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Liu Shan - Kongming's Archives
Liu Shan (劉禪), styled Gongsi (公嗣), born in Zhou County, Zhou Prefecture ( Presently Zuozhou in Hebei Province). “Liu Bei's son and the second Emperor of  ...
kongming.net/encyclopedia/Liu-Shan
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Does anyone else find Liu Shan irritating? - Dynasty Warriors 7 ...
For Dynasty Warriors 7: Xtreme Legends on the PlayStation 3, a GameFAQs message board topic titled "Does anyone else find Liu Shan ...
www.gamefaqs.com/boards/635632-/61323298
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Empress Zhang (Liu Shan, former)…
Empress Zhang (died 237), personal name unknown, formally known as Empress Jing'ai (literally: "the Respectful and Lamentable Empress"), was an empress of the state ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Zhang_(Liu_Shan,_former)
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Liu Kang Zombie and Shang Tsung tribute…
Liu Kang Zombie (mkd) and Shang Tsung (mkda) fighting in armageddon.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBvVqISGI8k
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Sifu Liu Chan-i and Feeding Crane Kung Fu…
Sifu Liu talks a little bit about the origins of Feeding Crane and does a short demonstration.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=_h2K8Db2QMw
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Amazon.com: Shaolin Challenges Ninja:…
If you know kung fu films then you must know Gordon Liu, and this is one of my favorite movies of his. Gordon Liu is an awesome martial artist.
www.amazon.com/Shaolin-Challenges-Ninja-Gordon-Liu/dp/B000FBWDC2
Search results for "Liu Shan"
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Liu Shan in science
Shan Liu - University of Washington
Professor Liu joined the Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering in September 2013. She holds the following degrees. Ph.D., Management Science  ...
Shan Liu - College of Engineering - University of Washington
Assistant Professor, Industrial & Systems Engineering.
MMI Faculty Shan Liu-Lu - University of Missouri - School of Medicine
Shan-Lu Liu, Ph.D. Associate Professor Email: liushan@missouri.edu. Phone: ( 573) 882-4770. Summary; Research; Publications; Lab Members ...
Liu Shan profiles | LinkedIn
View the profiles of professionals named Liu Shan on LinkedIn. ... Education: Royal Road University; Summary: A capable, results orientated Manager with over ...
Shan Liu - FSI Stanford
Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Stanford University. Skip to main ... Shan Liu's Curriculum Vitae (185.6KB, modified December 2012). Shan will ...
[PDF]SHAN LIU - Stanford University
1. SHAN Liu Shanliu@stanford.edu. Huang Engineering Center 212H, 475 Via Ortega (650)-213-6269. Stanford, CA 94305. RESEARCH INTERESTS.
SHAN LIU : Faculty Profiles : Adelphi University
SHAN LIU. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. COLLEGE OF NURSING AND PUBLIC HEALTH. ALUMNAE HALL ROOM 201. p - 516-877-4523. f - 516-877-4558.
LIU Shanshi
School of Business Administration,South China University of Technology.
Ma Liu Shui - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Chinese University of Hong Kong in Ma Liu Shui. The Hong Kong Science Park ... Most of them go to the nearby Ma On Shan area. The following KMB bus ...
Shan-Jan Sarah Liu — Department of Political Science
Sep 27, 2013 ... Shan-Jan Sarah Liu. Shan-Jan Sarah Liu. 214 Pond Laboratory University Park, PA 16802. Email: ssl5094@psu.edu. Office Hours: Websites:.
Books on the term Liu Shan
An Exposition of Benevolence: The Jen-hsüeh of Tʼan Ssu-tʼung
An Exposition of Benevolence: The Jen-hsüeh of Tʼan Ssu-tʼung
譚嗣同, Sin-wai Chan, 1984
ICC: pp. 382-383, Chih Liu Sung-fu shu ssu &¥Jift35 m EH (A letter to Liu Shan- han, No. 4) Chih Liu Sung-fu i (A letter to Liu Shan-han, No. 1) [Spring 1894] — pp. 478-479. /CC: pp. 381-382, Chih Liu Sung-fu shu san fx^m% *H (A letter to Liu ...
Linlin the little panda bear
Linlin the little panda bear
2013
Krista Dolan lives in Atlantic Canada with her husband of 17 years and their 4 children (2 they have adopted from China). Krista is active with the Adoption community and has been the Director of First Hugs, Gracies Room in China since October 2008. She has a special place in her heart for China's orphaned children.
The Talent of Shu: Qiao Zhou and the Intellectual World of ...
The Talent of Shu: Qiao Zhou and the Intellectual World of ...
J. Michael Farmer, 2008
How was Liu Shan to have interpreted the matters of Yao and Shun abdicating to worthies not their sons? Was Liu Shan to envision himself as these sage-rulers? In this case, the allusion would be a criticism of the heir apparent, Liu Xuan, ...
Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records ...
Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records ...
Shou Chen, Robert Joe Cutter, William Gordon Crowell, 1999
l (142-208), and there she gave birth to Liu Shan. Following Liu's assumption of the title of emperor in Yi province, Lady Gan, as mother of the heir apparent, was made empress. Liu Bei's Empress Wu 5k. was a widow and the sister of an ...
Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicines - Molecular ...
Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicines - Molecular ...
Jiaju Zhou, Guirong Xie, Xinjian Yan, 2011
Source: DENG XIN Liu Shan HU Junceella juncea (outer red layer: yield = 0.012%ww). Ref: 4601. O H OH Cl O O O O O O O O 11950 JuncenolideB C28H36O13 (580.59). Amorphous solid, [α]D25 = −12.4o (c = 0.4, MeOH). Pharm : Cytotoxic ...
China's Deep Reform: Domestic Politics in Transition
China's Deep Reform: Domestic Politics in Transition
2006
China's rapid and complex political and socioeconomic changes provide fertile ground for pioneering analysis, but they also present daunting theoretical and practical challenges. This reader takes up the challenge, offering the most comprehensive assessment of Chinese domestic politics available by bringing together the best recent scholarship...
Guan-Yu the Hero: Romance of the Three Kingdoms (¿¿, ¿¿¿¿¿¿)
Guan-Yu the Hero: Romance of the Three Kingdoms (¿¿, ¿¿¿¿¿¿)
Frankie Kt Neo, 2012
Cao Cao's forces chased Liu Bei from Xinye to Fancheng. Eventually, they caught up at Dangyang county and defeated Liu Bei. During skirmish, Liu Bei was separated from several of his followers, his two wives, and his infant son Liu Shan (or ...
Liu Bin's Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang, Volume One: South District Beijing's Strongly Rooted Style
Liu Bin's Zhuang Gong Bagua Zhang, Volume One: South District Beijing's Strongly Rooted Style
2008
Professor Zhang teaches Chinese culture, calligraphy, chi gung, martial arts, and Tui Na massage in Seattle. He has published many previous books in Chinese. This is his first English-language publication. Richard Shapiro lives in Mesa, AZ, where he practices and teaches Bagua Zhang and Tai Chi, and practices Tui-Na bodywork. With a master’s degree...
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Blog posts on the term
Liu Shan
In A Good Way Episode 8 Video Preview | A Fairytale World
This will be my final post for 2013! I can't believe the year is coming to an end already! Time sure does fly past! The next time I write up a post will be in 2014 and I hope I will be able to see you all there! Wishing you guys all a very Happy…
afairytaleworld.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/in-a-good-way-episode-8-video-preview/
MPP open to MP’s idea on solving traffic woes – BorneoPost Online | Borneo , Malaysia, Sarawak Daily News | Largest English Daily In Borneo
www.theborneopost.com/2013/12/25/mpp-open-to-mps-idea-on-solving-traffic-woes/
NYAB Event - Hung Liu “Qian Shan: Grandfather’s Mountain”
Showing at Nancy Hoffman Gallery. Nancy Hoffman Gallery presents a Hung Liu show entitled “Qian Shan: Grandfather’s Mountain”. Hung...
www.nyartbeat.com/event/2013/4AB2
Dynasty Warriors 8 Welcomes Xingcai And Liu Shan - Siliconera
Tecmo Koei have released screenshots for two more Dynasty Warriors 8 characters—Xingcai and Liu Shan.
www.siliconera.com/2013/02/18/dynasty-warriors-8-welcomes-xingcai-and-liu-shan/
asdfefasdf3dasfe: Liu Shan gætte, Han Lang hjem er et område på mindst ti ar ..
با دلشکسته لحظات زیبای خود را با دیگران به اشتراک بگذارید، با انها به تبادل نظرات و ایده های خود بپردازید و از مطالب و فعالیتهای آنها مطلع شوید.
delshekaste.com/view/post:26001002/Liu%20Shan%20g%C3%A6tte,%20Han%20Lang%20hjem%20er%20et%20omr%C3%A5de%20p%C3%A5%20min...html
asdfefas3f43223: Liu Shan Wang Meng viden kom på besøg, hurtigt Huanhaoyifu ..
با دلشکسته لحظات زیبای خود را با دیگران به اشتراک بگذارید، با انها به تبادل نظرات و ایده های خود بپردازید و از مطالب و فعالیتهای آنها مطلع شوید.
delshekaste.com/view/post:25951658
BabyAngelLinn: xu liu shan (許留山) = Mango Dessert Kingdom??
260313 Last Tuesday I went to The Mines with my friends (Step and Wendy). =] First, we went to BBQ Plaza for our dinner and then we shop at Sasa.
babyangellinn.blogspot.com/2013/03/xu-liu-shan-mango-dessert-kingdom.html
Chapter 61: In The River, Zhao Zilong Recovers Liu Shan; With One Letter, Sun Quan Repulses Cao Cao. ~ 三国杀! San Guo Sha Cardgame English Walkthrough
"Romance of the Three Kingdoms" (by Luo Guanzhong, Translated by C. H.
sanguoshaenglish.blogspot.com/2012/12/chapter-61-in-river-zhao-zilong.html
IJMS | Free Full-Text | High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization
A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL) was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL) was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0) and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0).
www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/1/203
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