Obligate Mutualism
Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. Mutualism can be contrasted with interspecific competition, in which each species experiences reduced fitness, and exploitation, or parasitism, in which one species benefits at the expense of the other. Mutualism is a type of symbiosis. Symbiosis is a broad category, defined to include relationships that are mutualistic, parasitic, or commensal. Mutualism is only one type.
A well-known example of mutualism is the relationship between ungulates (such as Bovines) and bacteria within their intestines. The ungulates benefit from the cellulase produced by the bacteria, which facilitates digestion; the bacteria benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients in the host environment.
Mutualism plays a key part in ecology. For example, mutualistic interactions are vital for terrestrial ecosystem function as more than 48% of land plants rely on mycorrhizal relationships with fungi to provide them with inorganic compounds and trace elements. In addition, mutualism is thought to have driven the evolution of much of the biological diversity we see, such as flower forms (important for pollination mutualisms) and co-evolution between groups of species. However mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation and parasitism.
Measuring the exact fitness benefit to the individuals in a mutualistic relationship is not always straightforward, particularly when the individuals can receive benefits from a variety of species, for example most plant-pollinator mutualisms. It is therefore common to categorise mutualisms according to the closeness of the association, using terms such as obligate and facultative. Defining "closeness," however, is also problematic. It can refer to mutual dependency (the species cannot live without one another) or the biological intimacy of the relationship in relation to physical closeness (e.g., one species living within the tissues of the other species).

This is an excerpt from the article Obligate Mutualism from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Obligate Mutualism at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 20 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/16/2013)
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Obligate mutualism - definition from Biology-Online.org
Jul 6, 2008 ... Definition and other additional information on Obligate Mutualism from Biology- Online.org dictionary.
www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Obligate_mutualism
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Facultative vs. Obligate Mutualisms
First Previous Next Last · Index Text. Slide 29 of 50.
www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios101/interactio/sld029.htm
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Mutualisms and conservation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mutualisms can be broadly divided into two categories. Firstly, Obligate Mutualism, where two mutualistic partners are completely interdependent for survival and ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutualisms_and_conservation
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Symbiosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
One of the most spectacular examples of Obligate Mutualism is between the siboglinid tube worms and symbiotic bacteria that live at hydrothermal vents and ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis
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mutualism
Mutualistic relationships often allow organisms to obtain food or to avoid pedation. This relationship can be differentiated into: facultative, and; obligate ...
www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/ecology/symbiosis/mutual.htm
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CB630: Evolution of obligate mutualism - The Talk.Origins Archive
Jan 16, 2004 ... Obligate Mutualism can evolve gradually from nonobligate associations. For example, a yucca can be pollinated by many insects and gradually ...
www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CB/CB630.html
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Mutualism
Types of mutualisms. ▫ Recall that mutualism is a (+ +) interaction, in which both individuals benefit from the interaction. ▫ Obligate Mutualisms are those in which ...
iweb.tntech.edu/cabrown/Ecology/Ecol%20Lectures/3130Mutualism.pdf
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Mutualistic Interactions | Learn Science at Scitable - Nature
A mutualism is obligate when one species relies completely on another species for goods or services. Yucca moths and yucca plants have a reciprocal obligate ...
www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/mighty-mutualisms-the-nature-of-plant-pollinator-13235427
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Untitled — Obligate Mutualism Examples
One of the most spectacular examples of Obligate Mutualism is between the siboglinid tube worms and symbiotic bacteria that live at hydrothermal vents and ...
hemuidun.tumblr.com/obligate-mutualism-examples
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Evolution and persistence of obligate mutualists and exploiters ...
Evolution and persistence of obligate mutualists and exploiters: competition for partners and evolutionary immunization. Ferrière R, Gauduchon M, Bronstein JL.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17257099
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Obligate Mutualism in science
Chemical ecology of obligate pollination mutualisms - Pheromone ...
Jan 22, 2013 ... Welcome to Lund University, Scandinavia's most complete university. ... Obligate Mutualisms between flowering plants and their seed-parasitic ...
[PDF]community context of an obligate mutualism: pollinator and florivore ...
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844- 3051 USA. Abstract. Obligate pollination mutualisms have been central to our ...
[PDF]Divergence in an Obligate Mutualism Is Not Explained by ... - Jstor
department of Biology, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA; ... Coevolution in Obligate Mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but.
Facultative non-mutualistic behaviour by an “Obligate” mutualist ...
We propose four hypotheses that could explain facultative non-mutualistic ... Present address: Department of Biology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British ...
COMMUNITY CONTEXT OF AN OBLIGATE MUTUALISM
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho ... In this study, we examined the community context of the Obligate Mutualism between ...
[PDF]impact of the third trophic level in an obligate mutualism: do yucca ...
of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-3051, U.S.A.. In obligate pollination mutualism, selection should favor increased exploitation ...
Myrmecophyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Obligate Mutualisms, both of the organisms involved are interdependent; they cannot survive on their own. An example of this type of mutualism can be found ...
The tsetse fly obligate mutualist Wigglesworthia morsitans alters ...
Aug 17, 2012 ... Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA . The obligate mutualist Wigglesworthia morsitans provisions ...
Non-mutualistic yucca moths and their evolutionary consequences
Mar 14, 1996 ... Department of Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee ... for reversal of an Obligate Mutualism: within the yucca moth complex, ...
EVOLUTIONARY STABILITY IN A 400-MILLION-YEAR-OLD ...
Mar 27, 2012 ... EVOLUTIONARY STABILITY IN A 400-MILLION-YEAR-OLD HERITABLE FACULTATIVE MUTUALISM. Stephen J. Mondo1,; Kevin H. Toomer1, ...
Books on the term Obligate Mutualism
Invasive Plant Ecology in Natural and Agricultural Systems
Invasive Plant Ecology in Natural and Agricultural Systems
Barbara Diane Booth, Stephen D. Murphy, Clarence J. Swanton, 2010
For example, one mutualist may provide nutrition while the other provides transport. Types of mutualisms Obligate Mutualisms In an Obligate Mutualism, both partners of the association require each other in order to survive. The most extreme ...
Mutualism: Ants and Their Insect Partners
Mutualism: Ants and Their Insect Partners
Bernhard Stadler, Anthony F. G. Dixon, 2008
In this Lotka–Volterra system, most obligate mutualists have larger negative carrying capacities than facultative mutualists (Fig. 3.2). Negative carrying capacities indicate that a population cannot grow in the absence of a partner population, ...
The Biology of Mutualism: Ecology and Evolution
The Biology of Mutualism: Ecology and Evolution
Douglas H. Boucher, 1988
The structure of this chapter is as follows. Types of mutualism are defined and classified in the second section in terms of traits that relate to the population dynamics of mutualistic systems. The next three sections treat obligate, facultative , and ...
Metacommunities: Spatial Dynamics and Ecological Communities
Metacommunities: Spatial Dynamics and Ecological Communities
Marcel Holyoak, Mathew A. Leibold, Robert D. Holt, 2005
Mutualistic effects may also be incorporated in multiple ways in models of facultative mutualisms. For example, the presence of a facultative mutualistic partner may increase carrying capacities or alter the speed at which populations approach ...
Elements of Mathematical Ecology
Elements of Mathematical Ecology
Mark Kot, 2001
Most mutualisms are diffuse, but it is easier to start by modeling specialized mutualisms. Also, how dependent are the species on the interaction? Are we dealing with an Obligate Mutualism where neither mutualist can survive without the other, ...
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Blog posts on the term
Obligate Mutualism
Global Attractivity of a Periodic Delayed -Species Model of Facultative Mutualism
The main objective of Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society is to foster links between basic and applied research relating to discrete dynamics of complex systems encountered in the natural and social sciences. The journal intends to stimulate publications directed to the analyses of computer generated solutions and chaotic in particular, correctness of numerical procedures, chaos synchronization and control, discrete optimization methods among other related topics. The journal provides a channel of communication between scientists and practitioners working in the field of complex systems analysis and will stimulate the development and use of discrete dynamical approach.
www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2013/580185/
Obligate mutualism | Not Many Wise
Faith and spirituality in a modern world (by Not Many Wise)
notmanywise.wordpress.com/2012/02/02/obligate-mutualism/
Radaractive: Obligate Mutualism. Another way to falsify Darwinism while also being another way to explain why Darwinism and sytematic atrocities are often mutual!
What is Obligate Mutualism? It is a situation in which two organisms absolutely depend upon each other for life. This is a commonplace fact of life in nature, just one that Darwinists do not bring up because it tends to collapse their house of cards.
radaractive.blogspot.com/2012/07/obligate-mutualism-another-way-to.html
Obligate mutualism | Half a Guinness please
and some chip baps to go with it. (by Jimmy Ng)
jimmyng.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/obligate-mutualism/
Genome Biology | Authorisation | Ant genomics sheds light on the molecular regulation of social organization
genomebiology.com/2013/14/7/212
Mutualism between Clownfish and Sea Anemones: Preliminary research
Mutualism is defined as the interaction of two species of organisms that benefits both. Obligate mutualists survive only by association; facultative mutualists, while benefitting from the presence of one another, may also survive in the absence of each other.
clownfishandseaanemones.blogspot.com/2008/06/preliminary-research.html
Plant-pollinator mutualisms and biodiversity | Honey Bee Suite
A Better Way to Bee
www.honeybeesuite.com/plant-pollinator-mutualisms-and-biodiversity/
Altanero and the fly catcher | EQUILIBRE Gaiá
Ethology & Horsemanship
equilibregaia.com/2013/06/25/altanero-and-the-fly-catcher/
Article alert: Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs
www.step-project.net/news.php?n=390
Why Ant-garden Ants Carry Seeds « Elsa Youngsteadt
elsakristen.com/divergent-chemical-cues-elicit-seed-collecting-by-ants-in-an-obligate-multi-species-mutualism-in-lowland-amazonia/
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