Polycentrism
Polycentrism is the principle of organization of a region around several political, social or financial centres. Examples of polycentric cities include the Ruhr area in Germany, and Stoke-on-Trent in the UK. Today, the former is a large city that grew from a dozen smaller cities, the latter a federation of six smaller towns. As a result, these "cities" have no single centre, but several. Other examples are Randstad in the Netherlands or Greater Boston in the United States.
A county is said to be polycentric if its population is distributed almost evenly among several centres in different parts of the county.
The theory of polycentrism was coined by Palmiro Togliatti and was understood as characterization of working conditions of communist parties in comparison between different countries after the de-stalinization in the former Soviet Union 1956.
Later the term polycentrism was extended and used for a system with several centres, as unity in diversity (politology, architecture, city planning).
In intercultural competence the term polycentrism is understood as attitude and openness towards other cultures, opinions and ways of life: when intercultural actions and correlations are interpreted not only with the background of own cultural experiences, but when the independence of other cultures is recognized and appreciated and when cultural values are relativized and seen in the whole context. This in the way of non-ethnocentrism, opposite to ethnocentrism.
In an article in The Nation (March 6, 2006) on "The World Social Forum: Protest or Celebration," Michael Blanding writes, "This year, the Caracas forum was one of three in a new 'polycentric' format intended to foster more regional collaboration." The quotes around "polycentric" indicate that this is a new use of the word. It is apt, in that most of those who attend gatherings like the World Social Forum are opposed to what could be called the "unicentrism" that characterizes imperial, neoliberal, and neoconservative economic and political theories and institutions; such people could be said to adherents to "polycentrism."

This is an excerpt from the article Polycentrism from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Polycentrism at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 3,304 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 06/11/2013)
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Polycentrism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polycentrism is the principle of organization of a region around several political, social or financial centres. Examples of polycentric cities include the Ruhr area ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycentrism
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polycentrism - The Free Dictionary
pol·y·cen·tric (p l -s n tr k). adj. 1. Having many centers, especially of authority or control: the shift from Soviet-American hegemony to a polycentric world. 2.
www.thefreedictionary.com/polycentrism
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Polycentrism | Define Polycentrism at Dictionary.com
the doctrine that a plurality of independent centers of leadership, power, or ideology may exist within a single political system, especially Communism. 2.
dictionary.reference.com/browse/polycentrism
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Polycentrism - Merriam-Webster Online
the existence of many centers of Communist ideological thought; especially : the existence of a number of autonomous national Communist movements ...
www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/polycentrism
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Self-governance, polycentrism, and federalism ... - Mercatus Center
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. Vol. 57 (2005) 173–188. Self- governance, Polycentrism, and federalism: recurring themes in Vincent Ostrom's ...
mercatus.org/uploadedFiles/Mercatus/Publications/Self-Governance,%20Polycentrism,%20and%20Federalism%20-%20Recurring%20Themes%20in%20Vincent%20Ostrom's%20Scholarly%20Oeuvre.pdf
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polycentrism - Wiktionary
Polycentrism ... Polycentrism (uncountable) ... Polycentrism: Continuous contact with individuals belonging to foreign cultures can lead to an acceptance that ...
en.wiktionary.org/wiki/polycentrism
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Polycentrism and Western Policy | Foreign Affairs
Much of the discussion in Western countries today of the problem of relations with world Communism centers around the recent disintegration of that extreme ...
www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23563/george-f-kennan/polycentrism-and-western-policy
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Reflection on Legal Polycentrism - Ludwig von Mises Institute
REFLECTIONS ON LEGAL Polycentrism. GERARD CASEY. IN ATTEMPTING TO PROMOTE the libertarian viewpoint, particularly in its anarchic variety ...
mises.org/journals/jls/22_1/22_1_2.pdf
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Polycentrism's channel - YouTube
Nearly one hour and NOT one mention of the word Jesuit. Deception begets deception begets deception. How is it that all of a sudden this layer of the onion is ...
www.youtube.com/user/Polycentrism
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polycentrism (political concept) -- Encyclopedia Britannica
Polycentrism (political concept) ... submit, your modifications will be sent to our editors for review. The topic Polycentrism is discussed in the following articles: ...
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Search results for "Polycentrism"
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Polycentrism in science
5 - Polycentrism - University Publishing Online
In June 1956 a series of nine questions were submitted to the Italian communist leader Palmiro Togliatti concerning communism since the 'secret speech'.
Polycentrism som planeringsstrategi - Lund University
Apr 24, 2013 ... Lund University ... Title, Polycentrism som planeringsstrategi ... The purpose of this thesis is to discuss Polycentrism to better understand it and ...
[PDF]Self-governance, polycentrism, and federalism ... - Mercatus Center
Self-governance, Polycentrism, and federalism: recurring themes in Vincent Ostrom's scholarly oeuvre. Richard E. Wagner. George Mason University ...
institutional polycentrism, entrepreneurs' social networks and new ...
Sep 24, 2012 ... A Tsui, Arizona State University, Tempe, United States ... Drawing on the theory of institutional Polycentrism and social network theory, we ...
Globalization and Governance: From Statism to Polycentrism
Globalization and Governance: From Statism to Polycentrism. ... Skip to content Skip to navigation. University of Warwick. Study; |; Research; |; Business; | ...
[PDF]Reflection on Legal Polycentrism - Ludwig von Mises Institute
In the early 1990s, Tom Bell, then a student at University of Chicago. Law School and now a Law Professor at Chapman, wrote a paper on. Legal Polycentrism ...
Urban Structure and Polycentrism: Towards a Redefinition of the ...
Centre of Land Policy and Valuations, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Av. Diagonal ... urban sub-systems characterised by greater or lesser Polycentrism.
[PDF]Towards a Definition of Urban Polycentrism for Brazilian Metropolises
TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF URBAN Polycentrism FOR BRAZILIAN. METROPOLISES. Renata Parente Paula Pessoa*. *Delft University of Technology, ...
Polycentrism and Gargantua by Peter J. Boettke, Christopher J ...
Nov 4, 2010 ... George Mason University - Department of Economics ... We call the former arrangement “Polycentrism” and the latter one “gargantua.
Polycentrism - PPG Portal - University of Toronto
A form of governance that is diffuse with authorities operating on different scales, emanating from multiple interconnected sites. (Scholte, Jan Aart (2005) ...
Books on the term Polycentrism
Cities and networks in Europe: A critical approach of polycentrism
Cities and networks in Europe: A critical approach of polycentrism
Nadine Cattan, 2007
This aim of this book is to look at the dominant representation that at present underpin the issues of territorial organisation and planning in Europe. Cities and networks are often envisaged as inevitably driving territorial development.
Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media
Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media
Ella Shohat, 1994
1 FROM EUROCENTRISM TO Polycentrism THE MYTH OF THE WEST When Captain Mac, in King Victor's Bird of Paradise (1932), repeats Kipling's nostrum that "East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet," he ...
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Blog posts on the term
Polycentrism
Polycentrism and the STEPS Centre “Mulitple Pathways” Approach | The Sustainable Geek
a look into the mind of a sustainability student and proud geek (by Alexis)
sustainablegeek.wordpress.com/2013/01/30/polycentrism-and-the-steps-centre-mulitple-pathways-approach/
Polycentrism and Western Policy
Polycentrism and Western PolicyMuch of the discussion in Western countries today of the problem of relations with world Communism centers around the recent disintegration of that extreme concentration of power in Moscow which characterized the Communist bloc in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, and the emergence in its place of a plurality of independent or partially independent centers of political authority within the bloc: the growth, in other words, of what has come to be des.
www.slashdocs.com/rtsrn/polycentrism-and-western-policy.html
Polycentrism and Gargantua | Mercatus
mercatus.org/publication/polycentrism-and-gargantua
Justin Webb: “Institutional Polycentrism, Entrepreneurs’ Social Networks, and New Venture Growth,” published in the Academy of Management Journal | Spears School of Business News
spears.okstate.edu/news/2012/09/26/justin-webb-institutional-polycentrism-entrepreneurs-social-networks-and-new-venture-growth-published-in-the-journal-of-business-venturing/
Bringing Polycentrism to Latin America
Washington's Latin American policy: a casualty of the Iraq distraction The region is going through a definitive transformation, with autonomous policymaking now becoming the norm Bush may be known as the U.S. President that inadvertently provided the coup de grace to the remnants of the Monroe Doctrine Polycentrism has been reborn in Latin America, and Washington would be wise to adapt to that fact. Polycentrism is a system of interpreting a country's political activity around multiple and co-equal centers of sovereignty, characterized by parity and pluralism. While the rights and responsibilities to its citizens and to the international community are immutable, sovereign equality is at the core of the region. At the time that Polycentrism first emerged as a concept in post-World War II Europe, its author, Italian Communist Party chief Palmiro Togliatti, represented it as an anti-Stalinist, but not necessarily as a pro-democratization initiative within the Soviet bloc. Translated to a Latin American context, Polycentrism reflects an accelerated unraveling of the asymmetrical, post-Cold War hemispheric relationships in which U.S. influence was paramount.
www.coha.org/bringing-polycentrism-to-latin-america/
German Polycentrism and the Writing of History | Department of History | College of Liberal Arts & Sciences | The University of Iowa
clas.uiowa.edu/history/just-published/german-polycentrism-and-writing-history
Working Paper: “Legal Polycentrism and the Circularity Problem” | Anarchy of Production
The Blog of Michael Wiebe (by Michael Wiebe)
anarchyofproduction.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/working-paper-legal-polycentrism-and-the-circularity-problem/
BioLaw: Law and the Life Sciences: Polycentrism, Fragmentation, and the Role of Linkages in the Decade on Biodiversity
The United Nations has declared 2011-2020 the Decade on Biodiversity and the Convention on Biological Diversity has adopted a Strategic Plan for this period. The plan suggests an emphasis on national and regional action with support from the international level.
biolaw.blogspot.com/2011/08/united-nations-has-declared-2011-2020.html
Peter Gordon's Blog: Polycentrism (the spatial kind) in Moscow.
Moscow goes capitalist (their version), and what do they get? Central city parking conflicts -- and flight from the urban center. Here is a summary.
www.petergordonsblog.com/2012/02/polycentrism-spatial-kind-in-moscow.html
Reflections on Legal Polycentrism | Strike-The-Root: A Journal Of Liberty
www.strike-the-root.com/reflections-on-legal-polycentrism
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