Predator satiation
Predator satiation (less commonly called predator saturation) is an antipredator adaptation in which prey occur at high population densities, reducing the probability of an individual organism being eaten. When predators are flooded with potential prey, they can consume only a certain amount, so by occurring at high densities prey benefit from a safety in numbers effect. This strategy has evolved in a diverse range of prey, from trees to insects. Predator satiation can be considered a type of refuge from predators.
As available food increases, a predator has more chances of survival, growth, and reproduction. However, as food supply begins to overwhelm the predator's ability to consume and process it, consumption levels off. This pattern is evident in the functional response of type III. There are also limits to population growth (numerical response), dependent on the generation time of the predator species.
This phenomenon is particularly conspicuous when it takes the form of masting, the production of large numbers of seeds by a population of plants.
Some periodical cicada (Magicicada) species erupt in large numbers from their larval stage at intervals in years that are prime numbers, 13 or 17. At high density sites, research finds that the number eaten by birds does not increase with the number of cicada individuals and the risk of predation for each individual decreases.
In contrast to predator satiation, a different pattern is seen in response to mutualistic consumers, which benefit an organism by feeding from it (such as frugivores, which disperse seeds). For example, a vine's berries may ripen at different times, ensuring frugivores are not swamped with food and so resulting in a larger proportion of its seeds being dispersed.

This is an excerpt from the article Predator satiation from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
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Predator satiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Predator satiation (less commonly called predator saturation) is an antipredator adaptation in which prey occur at high population densities, reducing the ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predator_satiation
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WoD Story Idea: Predator Satiation - RPGnet Forums - RPG.net
You probably know about cicadas, but if you don't: They're bugs that lay eggs, the larva hatch, they burrow into the ground, and then 17 years ...
forum.rpg.net/showthread.php?689307-WoD-Story-Idea-Predator-Satiation
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Predator satiation Periodical Cicadas in Ohio Disease
Predator satiation. Periodical Cicadas in Ohio. • Brood VIII. • Last emergence 2002. Magicicada septendecim (L.) 17-year cicada. Adults emerge once every 17 ...
www3.uakron.edu/biology/mitchell/ecology/predation2.pdf
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Predator Satiation | Beetles In The Bush
Jun 13, 2011 ... I've probably used the term Predator satiation more often during the past couple of weeks than I have during the entire rest of my life. Students ...
beetlesinthebush.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/predator-satiation/
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predator satiation | Culturing Science - biology as relevant to us ...
May 4, 2011 ... Lehmann-Ziebart and his undergrads suspect that the cicadas emerge in these odd patterns as a balance between Predator satiation and ...
culturingscience.wordpress.com/tag/predator-satiation/
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Predator satiation and recruitment in a mast fruiting monocarpic ...
Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to explain synchronous mast reproduction in long-lived plants. However, explanations for the ...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3043937/
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Increased Reproductive Success at High Densities and Predator ...
could have been caused by (1) Predator satiation, (2) increased fecundity at higher densities, ... The hypothesis of Predator satiation was explored in depth.
www.jstor.org/stable/1938949
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Population Synchrony in Mayflies: A Predator Satiation ... - jstor
Evolution, 36(4), 1982, pp. 810-821. POPULATION SYNCHRONY IN MAYFLIES: A Predator satiation HYPOTHESIS. BERNARD W. SWEENEY AND ...
www.jstor.org/stable/2407894
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Increased Reproductive Success at High Densities and Predator ...
This result could have been caused by (1) Predator satiation, (2) increased fecundity at higher ... The hypothesis of Predator satiation was explored in depth.
www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.2307/1938949
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Predator satiation - Biology-Forums Dictionary
Jan 31, 2011 ... The synchronous production of many progeny by all individuals in a population to satiate predators and thereby allow some progeny to survive; ...
biology-forums.com/definitions/index.php?title=Predator_satiation
Search results for "Predator satiation"
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Predator satiation in science
Predator satiation and recruitment in a mast fruiting monocarpic ...
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company . ... Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to ...
[PDF]Increased Reproductive Success at High Densities and Predator ...
DENSITIES AND Predator satiation. FOR PERIODICAL CICADAS'. RICHARD KARBAN. Biology Department, University of Pennsylvania,. Philadelphia ...
The functional response of a hoarding seed predator to mast seeding
2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G ... The Predator satiation hypothesis proposes that mast seeding maximizes ...
Long-term seed survival and dispersal dynamics in a rodent ...
Jun 10, 2013 ... Long-term seed survival and dispersal dynamics in a rodent-dispersed tree: testing the Predator satiation hypothesis and the predator dispersal ...
[PDF]Get PDF (624K) - Wiley Online Library
Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T ... ses: the Predator satiation hypothesis (that it increases seed survival and ...
Cicadas' bizarre survival strategy - Technology & science ...
May 4, 2004 ... This is the survival strategy known as "Predator satiation. ... said David Marshall, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Connecticut.
Mast seeding, predator satiation, and temperature cues in ...
Publication » Mast seeding, Predator satiation, and temperature cues in Chionochloa ... University of Calgary Biological Sciences Calgary AB T2N 1N4 Canada.
Selective benefits of masting - Biological Sciences - University of ...
The Predator satiation hypothesis was more fully developed by Janzen (1971) ... Predator satiation favours masting when variation in seed crops satiates seed ...
[PDF]Cicada paper - University of Toronto Mississauga
DENSITIES AND Predator satiation. FOR PERIODICAL CICADAS1. RICHARD KARBAN. Biology Department, University of Pennsylronia,. Philadelphia ...
Snow tussocks, chaos, and the evolution of mast seeding - White ...
Keywords: synchrony, Predator satiation, resource matching, seed bank, time- series analysis. Academic Units: The University of Sheffield > Faculty of Science ...
Books on the term Predator satiation
The Mayflies of Florida
The Mayflies of Florida
Lewis Berner, Manuel Lopez Pescador, 1988
Sweeney and Vannote suggested the Predator satiation hypothesis as a possible explanation of the adaptive value of ... According to this hypothesis Predator satiation occurs when the quantity of a particular prey item at a given time far ...
Tropical Trees as Living Systems
Tropical Trees as Living Systems
P. B. Tomlinson, Martin Zimmerman, 2010
scribed by Evans (1976), satiation of seed and seedling predators may occur only in certain years or by certain individuals. It is probable that with many adult individuals of many species of trees, for many, if not all, of their reproductive years, ...
Ecology and Demography of Solidago Ouachitensis (Asteraceae), ...
Ecology and Demography of Solidago Ouachitensis (Asteraceae), ...
Robert McClure McElderry, 2008
Escape from Predation Escape from seed predators occurs in three basic ways: satiation, toxicity, and dispersal (Janzen 1971). Satiation and dispersal work together for pre-dispersal predation given that the timing of dispersal will limit the  ...
Population Ecology: An Introduction to Computer Simulations
Population Ecology: An Introduction to Computer Simulations
Ruth Bernstein, 2003
Now consider the situation in which, beyond a certain prey density, the predators have more food than they can use. This situation, known as Predator satiation, occurs when the predator is so full that it has no drive to hunt for more prey or ...
Biology and Conservation of Ridley Sea Turtles
Biology and Conservation of Ridley Sea Turtles
Pamela T. Plotkin, 2007
It is under this category that predator swamping behavior belongs, which we now explore in detail. The Predator satiation Hypothesis The evolution of arribada behavior in ridleys has been explained largely as a Predator satiation strategy ...
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Blog posts on the term
Predator satiation
The Watch House: Predator Satiation in the World of Darkness
Matt McFarland suggests a season when the rules change and the monsters can do anything they like to us. .
thewatchhouserpg.blogspot.com/2013/05/predator-satiation-in-world-of-darkness.html
TYWKIWDBI ("Tai-Wiki-Widbee"): "Predator satiation"
It's how oak trees outwit squirrels and mice - by varying the output of fruit (acorns) to overwhelm, and then starve, the scavengers. Excerpts from the New York Times: While last fall set a recorded high for acorn production, at roughly 250 pounds per tree, this year is seeing a recorded low, with a typical tree shedding less than half a pound of its seeds, said Mark Ashton, a forest ecologist at Yale University.
tywkiwdbi.blogspot.com/2011/12/predator-satiation.html
Predator Satiation | Beetles In The Bush
Experiences and reflections of a Missouri entomologist
beetlesinthebush.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/predator-satiation/
Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length
www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/42410
Predator satiation and recruitment in a mast fruiting monocarpic forest herb
aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/01/14/aob.mcq262
On Predator Satiation | Beings Akin
"Cincinnatus made his way in that direction where, to judge by the voices, stood beings akin to him." (by Yan Zhitui)
beingsakin.wordpress.com/2011/02/10/on-predator-satiation/
Survival Of The Mathematical « The Dish
One of Derek Thompson’s commenters explains Stephen Jay Gould’s theory about why cicadas emerge on prime-numbered years: [Gould's] thought was that it dealt with predators having a large production of young every few years. For example, if the cicadas produced every 16 years instead of 17 a bird species producing lots of young every 4 years and smaller broods in the other 3 years would have a bounty for their birds when it intersects with the cicada year.
dish.andrewsullivan.com/2013/05/30/survival-of-the-mathematical/
Cicadas to Swarm Again in 2013
An adult periodical cicada perched on a blade of grass. Source: Wikimedia Animals have developed a wide variety of defensive strategies to avoid being eaten
dujs.dartmouth.edu/biological_sciences/cicadas-to-swarm-again-in-2013
A Return of the Cicadas (Part 1) | Greening The Apple
By Marcia Anderson Cicada Billions of flying bugs known as cicadas are currently sweeping over the United States’ most densely populated region, like a Stephen King novel that nobody dies in. They began emerging in Georgia and South Carolina in early May, and have worked their way 900 miles northward, to Washington DC, Philadelphia, New York City and Albany.
blog.epa.gov/greeningtheapple/2013/06/a-return-of-the-cicadas-part-1/
Why Do Cicadas Invade In Such Crazy Numbers? | Popular Science
Magicicada is a plague unlike any other, here in the northeast. And it is a plague with a reason: emerging in absurd, over-the-top, biblical
www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-05/why-do-cicadas-invade-such-crazy-numbers
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