Proto-Bulgars
The Bulgars (also Bolgars, Bulghars, Proto-Bulgarians,Huno-Bulgars) were a semi-nomadic people who flourished in the Pontic Steppe and the Volga basin in the 7th century. Ethnically, the Bulgars are thought to have been Oghur Turkic, with Scytho-Sarmatian and Sarmatian-Alan elements. There is a discussion whether these Sarmatian elements in the cultural characteristics of the Proto-Bulgars are based on Sarmatized Turks or Turkicized Sarmatians. They had also enveloped other ethnic groups by their migration westwards across the Eurasian steppe.
Originating as nomadic equestrians of Central Asia, they became sedentary during the 7th century, establishing the polity (khanate) of Old Great Bulgaria in the Pontic steppe. However it was absorbed by the Khazar Empire in 668 AD. In 680 AD Khan Asparukh conquered Scythia Minor, opening access to Moesia, and established the First Bulgarian Empire, which was however slavicized by the 10th century. Another state called Volga Bulgaria was established on the middle Volga circa 670 AD. Volga Bulgars preserved their national identity well into the 13th century by repelling the first Mongol attacks in 1223. But they were eventually subdued, and their capital Bolghar city became one of major cities of the Mongol Golden Horde. Later, the Volga Bulgars adopted the Kipchak language (with some or no Kipchak admixture) and became the Volga Tatars of the Khanate of Kazan and later modern Tatarstan.

This is an excerpt from the article Proto-Bulgars from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Proto-Bulgars at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 11 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/07/2013)
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Bulgars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bulgars (also Bolgars, Bulghars, Proto-Bulgarians, Huno-Bulgars) were a semi-nomadic people who flourished in the Pontic Steppe and the Volga basin in ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgars
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The Proto-Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea - Tripod
The Proto-Bulgarians in the East-European steppes prior to VII c. AD. Documentary evidence about the Proto-Bulgarians and other akin to them tribes: Bulgars ...
groznijat.tripod.com/p_bulgar/
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Proto-Bulgarians - 1a - Tripod
The Proto-Bulgarians as inhabitants of the lands north of the Caucasus are mentioned by the Armenian writer Moses Horenaci. In his History of Armenia, written ...
groznijat.tripod.com/p_bulgar/p_bulg1a.htm
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The proto- bulgars were finno-ugrians not turks - Boardhost
[ Post a Response | Pan Bulgarian Message Board ]. The proto- bulgars were finno-ugrians not turks. Posted by bulgarian on 2/16/2006, 7:30 pm 64.162. 111.136 ...
members3.boardhost.com/PanBolgarian/msg/1140147037.html
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Origin of the PROTO Bulgars | Slavic Nationalist Forum
Origin of the PROTO Bulgars Apr 25, 2007 10:08:56 GMT -5 ... As we all know Proto Bulgars and Bulgarians are 2 different things, today we are Bulgarians!
slavija.proboards.com/thread/3639
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Rasho Rashev - On the origin of the Proto-Bulgarians (1992)
Every attempt to intervene in the century-old question regarding the origin of the Proto-Bulgarians inevitably makes its author repeat well-known facts and ...
www.kroraina.com/bulgar/rashev.html
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why bulgarian have olive skin and are darker than other slav?? - Topix
Bulgarians look like serbs, croats but not like Romanians. History lesson: Bulgarian nation is created when slavics,Proto-Bulgars, thracian ...
www.topix.com/forum/world/bulgaria/TLBFOEE69UOU6V88S/p5
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Proto-Bulgars - Volga Bulgaria - Face Music
The denomination Proto-Bulgarians, Bulgars or also Hunno-Bulgars refers to a Turkic people settling at the middle course of the Volga and the Kam River.
www.face-music.ch/nomads/protobulgar_en.html
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ХИПОТЕЗИ ЗА НАРОДНОСТНОТО ИМЕ НА ДРЕВНИТЕ БЪЛГАРИ
ПО ПЪТЯ НА БЪЛГАРСКИЯ ЕТНОНИМ. Иван Танев Иванов. ХИПОТЕЗИ ЗА НАРОДНОСТНОТО ИМЕ НА ДРЕВНИТЕ БЪЛГАРИ. Страница за ...
www.protobulgarians.com/Kniga%20za%20etnonima/2-Hipotezi.htm
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Bulgar language - Wikipedia, the free…
Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars. Many scholars believe that it belonged to Oghur subgroup of Turkic ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgar_language
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Proto-Bulgars in science
Bulgars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bulgars (also Bolgars, Bulghars, Proto-Bulgarians, Huno-Bulgars) were a ..... University of Washington Press, 1994. page 6; ^ Bowersock, G. W. & Grabar, ...
Links - Proto-Bulgarians, Central Asia, etc. - Tripod
Links to external pages about the Proto-Bulgarians, Central Asia, etc.: ... Volga Bulgaria - at the Archeological Museum of the Kazan University (in Russian)
Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about ...
Affiliations: Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, .... The initial homeland of the proto-Bulgarians, called Balhara by Indians and ...
Am - Страница за Прабългарите
http://protobulgarians.com ... 1Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu and Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia; 2Dipartimento di Genetica e ...
Where did bulgarians came from
... of Bulgarians' ancestors, prominent historian and Sofia University professor ... the notion that proto-Bulgarians' have come into Europe from lands in central ...
The Proto-Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea - Tripod
The Proto-Bulgarians in the East-European steppes prior to VII c. AD. Documentary evidence about the Proto-Bulgarians and other akin to them tribes: Bulgars ...
Books on the term Proto-Bulgars
A Concise History of Bulgaria
A Concise History of Bulgaria
R. J. Crampton, 2005
They colonised areas of the eastern Balkans and in the seventh century other Slav tribes combined with the Proto-Bulgars, a group of Turkic origin, to launch a fresh assault into the Balkans. The Proto-Bulgars originated in the area between  ...
Bulgarian Folk Customs
Bulgarian Folk Customs
Mercia MacDermott, 1998
The process, in fact, involved mainly the Slavs and the Proto-Bulgars, for, by that time, the Thracians had ceased to exist ... One factor which facilitated co- operation between the Slavs and Proto-Bulgars was their long acquaintance with each ...
Empires of Islam in Renaissance Historical Thought
Empires of Islam in Renaissance Historical Thought
Margaret MESERVE, Margaret Meserve, 2009
not have much connection with the Franks.111 Norbert Wagner suggests that Fredegar refers to the Turkic-speaking Proto-Bulgars, a nomadic people who settled along the middle Danube in the seventh century and did come into contact with ...
Still Life: Klipfisk, Cloudberries and Life After Kids
Still Life: Klipfisk, Cloudberries and Life After Kids
Elisabeth Luard, 2013
Invention delivered the Proto—Bulgars, a group of mythical early Bulgarians who were perhaps of Mongolian— Turkish origin, but who were most definitely not Ottoman. Since no one knew who these primitive Bulgarians were or what they ...
Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire
Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire
Mehrdad Kia, 2011
BULGARIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH In a.d. 679, “ a small tribe of Proto-Bulgars” arrived in the Bal- kans under the leadership of ... 27 These Proto-Bulgars, who were originally a Turkic/Turanian people from Central Asia and who “had once ...
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Blog posts on the term
Proto-Bulgars
Post-Attila Huns – myth or reality? Are Bulgarians really Proto-Turkic? | www.EuroChicago.com - The Bulgarian Media Portal in Chicago
The idea that the Bulgars were Turkic-speaking people comes not from a real examination of records and the empirical lexical material in some of the stone inscriptions but from the interpretation of words in the Name List of Bulgarian Khans. It is also clear that a part of military titles as chorguboil, yabgu (syubighi, Yuvigi) is also Turkic. But to form a definitive theory about the historic turkic-speach of the Bulgarians, it is necessary to take into account the records, including Arab and medieval historical sources, which very clearly and categorically stated that the Bulgarian and Khazarian languages ​​are similar, but differ from Turkic.
www.eurochicago.com/2012/02/post-attila-huns-myth-or-reality-are-bulgarians-really-proto-turkic/
Hercolano2: History of the Proto-Bulgarians (1)
History of the Proto-Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea The Proto-Bulgarians in the East-European steppes prior to VII c. AD Documentary evidence about the Proto-Bulgarians and other akin to them tribes: Bulgars, Unogundurs, Onogurs, Utigurs, Kutrigurs Sabirs, Barsils, Belendzheris, Khazars  Archaeological evidence about the Proto-Bulgarians from: - North-Eastern Fore-Caucasus and Northern Dagestan: Pit graves, artificial skull deformation, Sarmatians, Northern Bactria Huns, Alans, Proto-Bulgarians, Dagestan, Belendzer  - East of the Sea of Azov (VI-VII century AD): Unogundurs, Kuban, kureni, auli, Great Bulgaria, Phanagoria  - North of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov (VI-VII century AD): Kutrigurs, Severski Doneck, Zlivka necropolis, Sarkel  "Old Great Bulgaria": Khan Kubrat, Theophanes, Nicephorus, Malaja Preschepina, Voznesenka The Pereschepina treasure of Khan Kubrat, VIIth c.
hercolano2.blogspot.com/2010/07/history-of-proto-bulgarians-1.html
Bulgarians are 'special type' of Slav - geneticist - Bulgaria - The Sofia Echo
Bulgarians' closest genetic cousins are Poles and Croats, according to a Bulgarian Academy of Science researcher. By The Sofia Echo staff, published 08/09/2011 13:50:00.
sofiaecho.com/2011/09/08/1152037_bulgarians-are-special-type-of-slav-geneticist
Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: Y chromosomes of Bulgarians (Karachanak et al. 2013)
Bulgaria had been something of a blank area in studies of uniparental markers, so it's nice to finally see a comprehensive Y-chromosome study of the country. The dates in the paper are based on the "evolutionary mutation rate".
dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/03/y-chromosomes-of-bulgarians-karachanak.html
Cyril & Methodius - Macedonian Truth Forum
. Cyril & Methodius Macedonian History
www.macedoniantruth.org/forum/showthread.php?t=4276
The Origins of Bulgaria: Myths and Facts | Blazing Bulgaria
Stories, facts and travel tips about Eastern Europe's hidden tourist gem.
blazingbulgaria.wordpress.com/2012/06/26/origins_of_bulgaria/
Bulgarian compared to other Slavic languages
Prof. Benyo Tsonev (1863-1926)Bulgarian language is the Slavic language spoken by the today's Balkan Slavs known by the name Bulgarians.
lyudmilantonov.blogspot.com/2011/03/bulgarian-language-and-other-slavic.html
Uncertain Identity? | Thulean Perspective
All posts by Varg Vikernes (by Varg Vikernes)
thuleanperspective.com/2013/02/24/uncertain-identity/
The names of the five Bands of Sklavins who attacked Thessalonica in 614 AD have Hunnic or Iranian etymologies
The anonymous Miracula S. Demetrii (= Miracles of St. Demetrius II; compiled ca. 675-685) gives a list of five bands (ἔϑνος) of the Sklavins who attacked
history-of-macedonia.com/2010/04/05/names-of-five-sklavini-bands-who-attacked-thessalonica-have-hunnic-iranian-etymologies/
Pray for Muslim Millet and the Rumelian Turks in Bulgaria
Nora and her family belong to the Millet ethnic group (300,000 Turkish-speaking Gypsies). They are part of about one million mainly Muslim Turkish-speaking people living in Bulgaria (which has a total population of 8.2 million).
www.30-days.net/muslims/muslims-in/europe/bulgaria-rumelian-turks/
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