Puszcza Nalibocka
Naliboki Forest, the Naliboki Pushcha (wild forest), is a large forest complex in the northwestern Belarus, on the right bank of the Neman River, on the Belarusian Ridge.
Naliboki Pushcha is famous for its nature and rich, although tragic, history. The forest is named after a small town of Naliboki situated in the middle of it, although the title of "informal capital of the forest" belongs rather to the town of Ivyanets.
Much of the area is occupied by pine forests and swamps, and some parts of the Naliboki are rather hilly. Rich fauna include deer, wild boars, elks, beavers, bears, bison, wood grouses, heath cocks, snipes etc. From the 10th to the 11th century, although very scarcely populated, the big forest on the right bank of upper Neman was strategically important for the pagan Lithuanian tribes. The important Ruthenian towns Minsk and Zaslawye were founded on the edge of the forest as fortresses to defend the Ruthenian frontier against Lithuanian forays. In the middle of the 13th century, the forest defended the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the south from the attacks of the Golden Horde and its vassal, the principality of Halych-Volhynia, thus helping the newly formed state to survive. The border between Ruthenia (which remained under Tartar power) and Lithuania that was established as a result of this clash, left traces in the local legends about the battles with Tartars at Mahilna and Koydanava and predetermined the long lasting division of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Lithuania proper and “Lithuanian Russia”. As a result of the Union of Krewo (1385) and subsequent Christianization of Lithuania in 1387, local pagans were converted to Catholicism, and the area stayed predominantly Catholic until today. The long-term clash of Russian Orthodox and Polish-Lithuanian Catholic identities in the Naliboki Forest lasted until recent times, as exemplified in such prominent 20th century figures as Felix Dzerzhinsky, or many heroes of Catholic resistance both to Nazi and Soviet regimes.
In the second half of the 16th century, most of the Naliboki Forest had been concentrated in the hands of the powerful Radziwill family, serving partly as their hunting grounds, but also as a rich source of timber and grade iron ore from a local pre-industrial foundry, produced mostly for export. In the 18th century, Hanna Radziwill (née Sanguszko) founded such famous enterprises as the glass factory in the town of Naliboki and the porcelain factory in Sverzhan as well as patronising the ceramic workshops in Rakau.
Traces of Lithuanian culture, at least in toponymics and personal names, survive until today. For instance, the name Ivyanets, originally Givenech, derives from Lithuanian gyventi – “to live”, and Pershai – from piršlys – matchmaker. A few Lithuanian-speaking communities were still present in the deep forest until the early 19th century, but by the middle of the 19th century, the area became predominantly “Belarusian”-speaking (although the very term “Belarusian” was completely unknown to local Catholics until the early 20th century).
Moreover, this area, together with the adjacent territories of the historical Lithuania, became a cradle of the new Belarusian literary tradition in the second half of the 19th century. Its pioneer, Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich (Polish: Wincenty Dunin-Marcinkiewicz) for most of his life owned a small village of Lucynka, where he permanently resided as of the early 1860s, and where most of his literary works were written. The older generation of inhabitants of Naliboki still speaks almost standard literary Belarusian, although many of them consider themselves Polish. Ironically, the first person who started to call himself “Belarusian”, Salomon Rysiński, spent much of his life in the town of Lubcha at the western brink of the Naliboki Forest. After World War II, the only Catholic priest in Belarus who served in the Belarusian language, was Father Charniauski from Vishneva.
During World War II, the Naliboki Forest hosted many thousands of those who escaped from Nazi terror and formed partisan troops – Soviet, Jewish and Polish as well as criminals without any political ideals. The estimated number of armed troops in the forest varies from 10 to 25 thousand. Relations between them were not easy: in specific, on May 8, 1943 the Naliboki massacre occurred, and an estimated 128 local citizens were killed by Soviet partisans. In June 1943, the town of Ivyanets was liberated for a short while from the Nazis by the partisans of the Polish Home Army, supported by Soviet partisans. Nazi "pacification" action in response, known as "Operation Hermann", on July 1943, employed about 52,000 armed troops which devastated most of the villages and towns of the forest. Hundreds of thousands of the local people were killed or driven to Germany for forced labour. "Operation Hermann" was targeted especially against the Catholic resistance, and in particular, Franciscan friars Józef Achilles Puchała and Karol Herman Stępień, beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1999, were tortured to death by the Nazis. Most of the partisans, however, managed to escape the Nazi blockade. Starting in Autumn 1943, relations between Polish and Soviet partisans became openly hostile, after the treacherous capture and execution of the chief officers of the local Home Army troops by the Soviets.
The former Jewish community of the vast primeval Naliboki Forest is known for several famous representatives who come from the area, such as the current President of Israel Shimon Peres (born 1923 in Vishneva), a founder of the movement World Agudath Israel Yitzhak HaLevy (Rabinowitz, born 1847, Ivenets – 1914), and many others. Many famous rabbis were trained in Valozhyn yeshiva, founded in 1803 by Rabbi Chaim Volozhin (Chaim Ben Yitzchok).
Vivid and famous examples of Jewish resistance to the Holocaust and, generally, to Nazism with both words and weapons, in Naliboki Forest in the 1940s, were given by such different people as famous Soviet Jewish partisan leaders Tuvia Bielski (1906–1987, see also Defiance (2008 film)) and Shalom Zorin (1902–1974) or Carmelite monk Brother Daniel Stein (Oswald Rufeisen), a founder of the first Hebrew Catholic community in Israel. Other prominent Jewish leaders born in the area include Nahum Goldmann, a founder and longtime president of the World Jewish Congress, and Meir Berlin (Bar-Ilan, (1880–1949)), Orthodox rabbi and leader of Religious Zionism, the Mizrachi Movement.
Naliboki Forest with its surroundings, is one of the few regions of Belarus which to some extent has preserved certain features of pre-Soviet and pre-Russian (“Slavonic Lithuanian”) culture. This regional identity, complementary to the “standard” Belarusian culture, will be emphasized in the long-term campaign for the creation of a recognizable image of the region.
Coordinates: 53°53′04″N 26°26′33″E / 53.88444°N 26.44250°E

This is an excerpt from the article Puszcza Nalibocka from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Puszcza Nalibocka at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 9 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 06/20/2014)
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Puszcza Nalibocka – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia
Puszcza Nalibocka (biał. Налібоцкая пушча) – duży, liczący ok. 240 tys. ha kompleks leśny w północno-zachodniej części Białorusi, na prawym brzegu Niemna, ...
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Puszcza Nalibocka | Wikimapia - Opiszmy cały świat!
Moja rodzina ze strony taty pochodzi z Wołodźkowa, może ktoś z tamtąd pamięta rodzinę Lewantowiczów, Czarnych, Dragunów? Wiem że z dalszej lini ...
wikimapia.org/18945466/pl/Puszcza-Nalibocka
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Archiwa: Puszcza Nalibocka - Kresy24.pl - Wschodnia Gazeta ...
Milicja z obwodu mińskiego przeczesuje Puszczę Nalibocką w poszukiwaniu nielegalnych wytwórni samogonu. Do tego celu używa samolotów bezzałogowych.
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Panoramio - Photos by vonhazke > Puszcza Nalibocka
I am interested in protecting natural and cultural heritage. I'm trying to get pleasure from visiting inaccessible areas :). Налібоцкая пушча / Naliboki forest ...
www.panoramio.com/user/1117638/tags/Puszcza%20Nalibocka
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Nieznana Puszcza Nalibocka - Belarus Magazine
Nieznana Puszcza Nalibocka. Stary las do dziś przechowuje relikty historyczne i przyrodnicze. W drodze z Mińska do Grodna i Wilna ciągną się ogromne ...
www.belarus-magazine.by/pl.php?subaction=showfull&id=1249715120&archive=1335950966&start_from=&ucat=8&
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Czy "partyzanci" Tewje Bielskiego pacyfikowali Naliboki? - Bibula ...
1 Cze 2008 ... W niezwykle trudnych warunkach rozwijała się na tych terenach polska konspiracja, głównie ZWZ-AK. W Puszczy Nalibockiej stacjonowało do ...
www.bibula.com/?p=2061
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Michał Bąkowski, Bracia Bielscy, masakra nalibocka i – Józef ...
2 Lis 2009 ... Puszcza Nalibocka leżała przed wojną po polskiej stronie, była więc naturalnie bogatsza niż skolektywizowane okolice pobliskiego Mińska.
www.eioba.pl/a/21va/michal-bakowski-bracia-bielscy-masakra-nalibocka-i-jozef-mackiewicz
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O Puszczy Nalibockiej w "Dzikiej Przyrodzie" :: Białoruś :: Kresy.pl
6 Kwi 2011 ... "Dzika Przyroda" to wydawane od 2008 r. na Białorusi czasopismo przyrodniczo- myśliwskie. Mimo to jednak można w nim znaleźć wiele treści ...
kresy.pl/?zobacz/o-puszczy-nalibockiej-w-dzikiej-przyrodzie
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Nalibocka Puszcza - WIEM, darmowa encyklopedia - Portal Wiedzy
Nalibocka Puszcza, Nalibockaja Pszcza, duży kompleks leśny w północno- zachodniej części Białorusi, na Wyżynie Białoruskiej, na prawym brzegu...
portalwiedzy.onet.pl/84659,,,,nalibocka_puszcza,haslo.html
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Puszcza Nalibocka | Niepoprawni.pl
1 Sie 2013 ... Historia. W Powstaniu Warszawskim walczyło wiele oddziałów, był wśród nich oddział, który musiał ewakuować się przed zbliżającymi się do ...
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Puszcza Nalibocka in science
Plan East - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... land with huge forests (e.g. Puszcza Nalibocka — the Wilderness of Naliboki). .... and the Successor States, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508105-6, ...
Defiance Review - the Polish American Journal
... Defiance: The Bielski Partisans by Nechama Tec (Oxford University Press, 1993). ... Soviet partisans in the Puszcza Nalibocka demanded that this force leave ...
Panoramio - Photos by vonhazke > Puszcza Nalibocka
I am interested in protecting natural and cultural heritage. I'm trying to get pleasure from visiting inaccessible areas :). Налібоцкая пушча / Naliboki forest ...
Books on the term Puszcza Nalibocka
Operation Barbarossa and Germany's Defeat in the East
Operation Barbarossa and Germany's Defeat in the East
David Stahel, 2009
... his flight to Hoth's headquarters, which swept over the Puszcza Nalibocka forested area and convinced Guderian that, in contrast to the army group and 4th Army, 'there were no consider— able enemy forces in the forest and that there was, ...
Początki Polski: z dziejów Słowian w I tysiącleciu n.e
Początki Polski: z dziejów Słowian w I tysiącleciu n.e
Henryk Łowmiański, 1985
142, 143 Pustynia Błędowska 120 Puszcza Białowieska 80 Puszcza Goleniowska 176 Puszcza Kampinowska 140, 146 Puszcza Nalibocka 82, 83 Puszcza Niepołomicka 124 Puszcza Notecka 156 Puszcza Pilicka 136, 140 Puszcza Pyzdrska ...
Defiance
Defiance
Nechama Tec and Edward Zwick, 2008
The prevailing image of European Jews during the Holocaust is one of helpless victims, but in fact many Jews struggled against the terrors of the Third Reich. In Defiance, Nechama Tec offers a riveting history of one such group, a forest community in western Belorussia that would number more than 1,200 Jews by 1944--the largest armed rescue operati...
Ethnologia Polona
Ethnologia Polona
2001
Between the wars such enclaves existed, among others, in the Naliboki Forest (Puszcza Nalibocka). What is the history of those communities? What were the relationships between neighbours belonging to different religious denominations ?
Jack and Rochelle: A Holocaust Story of Love and Resistance
Jack and Rochelle: A Holocaust Story of Love and Resistance
Jack Sutin, Rochelle Sutin and Lawrence Sutin, 2008
Sutin (Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick) crafted this Holocaust account from a series of interviews he conducted with his parents. Narrating alternately, Jack and Rochelle vividly describe how they, as Polish Jews, fled separately in 1942 from their respective ghettos, where they had been relocated by the Germans. Each hid in the woods; a...
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Puszcza Nalibocka
Налибокская пуща.карта.окрестности Puszcza nalibocka.mapa. | Karty.by
Налибокская пуща.карта.окрестности Puszcza Nalibocka.mapa.
www.karty.by/2011/03/31/%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%89%D0%B0-%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%84%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82/
Wydawnictwo Podziemne - Bracia Bielscy, masakra nalibocka i – Józef Mackiewicz - Michał Bąkowski
Antybolszewicka witryna polityczna. Artykuły, ankiety, komentarze. Michał Bąkowski, Dariusz Rohnka
wydawnictwopodziemne.com/2009/01/21/bracia-bielscy-masakra-nalibocka-i-%E2%80%93-jozef-mackiewicz/
Dzierżyński – biografia niepoprawna | Norwid Blog
Kontynuacja artykułu: Fałszywi Polacy. Selman Rufin alias Dzierżyński. Prawica, Konserwatyści, Narodowcy etc. co to jest? #1 Kolejne posunięcie rzekomych nowożeńców jest jeszcze bardziej zaskakujące. Ta kobieta w ciąży, od razu po ślubie wraca do Warszawy, aby pracować w redakcji Czerwonego Sztandaru, oczywiście już jako kobieta zamężna, gdzie ją aresztuje policja i osadza w więzieniu. Syn rodzi się już w więzieniu…
norwid.wordpress.com/2013/10/21/dzierzynski-biografia-niepoprawna/
POGROM POLAKÓW ZBRODNIE W NALIBOKACH I KONIUCHACH | Blogpress
www.blogpress.pl/node/15762
Szwadron Kawalerii im. 27. Pułku Ułanów - Strona główna
kawaleriaochotnicza.org/?p=181
122 Polaków zamordowanych w Nalibokach przez żydowską bandę 8 maja 1943 r. | Polonuska
Sobota-Niedziela, 31 maja - 1 czerwca 2008, Nr 126 (3143) Nowicki Wacław Żywe Echa. Chorał Zaniemeński, Boję Się Świtu, Nie Wzięto Nam Wiary - Prawda o rzezi na Polakach w NALIBOKACH! Wydawca: Wydawnictwo ANTYK Marcin Dybowski Wydanie: Wyd. 1 Rok wydania: 1993 Opis fizyczny: A5, stron 464 Czy "partyzanci" Tewje Bielskiego pacyfikowali Naliboki? Czego nie…
polonuska.wordpress.com/2012/03/11/1583/
Aleksander Szumański: POGROM POLAKÓW ZBRODNIE W NALIBOKACH I KONIUCHACH
www.polishclub.org/2013/02/06/aleksander-szumanski-pogrom-polakw-zbrodnie-w-nalibokach-i-koniuchach/
Narodowy Oświęcim: Zbrodnia w Nalibokach
Swego czasu kontrowersje wzbudził film “Opór” (Defiance), oparty na książce Nechamy Tec “Defiance. The Bielski Partisans” (“Opór.
narodowyoswiecim.blogspot.com/2013/03/zbrodnia-w-nalibokach.html
Zbrodnie żydowskich “partyzantów” na polskiej ludności – Koniuchy i Naliboki | Polska Myśl Narodowa
Wstęp Niniejszy zbiór tekstów stanowi próbę zaprezentowania partyzantki żydowskiej na ziemiach II RP pod okupacja niemiecką. Wybór tekstów został zaopatrzony w obszerną listę zewnętrznych artykułów uzupełniających, jednak dla wyrobienia sobie przez czytelnika opinii o całokształcie zjawiska powinny wystarczyć publikacje zaprezentowane poniżej. Szczególnie polecany jest pierwszy z tekstów, ponieważ przybliża on aspekty ekonomiczne działania oddziałów partyzanckich…
myslnarodowa.wordpress.com/2012/11/24/zbrodnie-zydowskich-partyzantow-na-polskiej-ludnosci-koniuchy-i-naliboki/
Żydowscy komuniści – bandy zbrodniarzy na ziemiach polskich w latach 1941-1944 « Dziennik gajowego Maruchy
W czasach, gdy żydowskie "fabryki snów" kręcą filmy o żydowskich bandytach, robiąc z nich walecznych partyzantów, poniższy artykuł jest bardziej niż potrzebny. Zob. też: http://marucha.wordpress.com/2009/04/25/defiance/ Admin I. Komunistyczne organizacje polityczne na ziemiach polskich – historiaż Pod okupacją niemiecką do 1941 ruch komunistyczny był bardzo rozdrobniony i niezorganizowany. Po zlikwidowaniu w 1938 KPP, zamknięciu Żydów w gettach,…
marucha.wordpress.com/2011/02/12/zydowscy-komunisci-%E2%80%93-bandy-zbrodniarzy-na-ziemiach-polskich-w-latach-1941-1944/
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