Reconstruction Era of the United States
In the history of the United States, the term Reconstruction Era has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society.
From 1863 to 1865, Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson took moderate positions designed to bring the South back to normal as quickly as possible, while the Radical Republicans (as they called themselves) used Congress to block their moderate approaches, impose harsh terms, and upgrade the rights of the freedmen (former slaves). Klose and Lader argue that Johnson "favored a moderate policy ... He proceeded, therefore, to carry out a policy very similar to Lincoln's."
The views of Lincoln and Johnson prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866 in the North, which enabled the Radicals to take control of policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and even churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came South, as missionaries, teachers, businessmen and politicians; hostile elements called them "Carpetbaggers". Rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression (called the Panic of 1873) struck the economy in 1873. The Radicals, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges but the action failed by one vote in the Senate.
President Ulysses S. Grant supported Radical Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Force Acts passed by Congress. Grant suppressed the Ku Klux Klan, but was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican party between the Carpetbaggers and the Scalawags (native whites in the South). Meanwhile self-styled Conservatives (in close cooperation with Democrats) strongly opposed Republican rule. They alleged widespread corruption by the Carpetbaggers, excessive state spending and ruinous taxes. The opposition violently counterattacked and regained power in each "redeemed" Southern state by 1877. Meanwhile public support for Reconstruction policies faded in the North, as voters decided the Civil War was over and slavery was dead. The Democrats, who strongly opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874; the presidential electoral vote in 1876 was very close and confused, forcing Congress to make the final decision. The deployment of the U.S. Army was central to the survival of Republican state governments; they collapsed when the Army was removed in 1877 as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president.
Reconstruction was a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States, but most historians consider it a failure because the South became a poverty-stricken backwater attached to agriculture, white Democrats re-established dominance through violence, intimidation and discrimination, forcing freedmen into second class with limited rights and utterly excluding them from politics. Historian Eric Foner argues, "What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure."

This is an excerpt from the article Reconstruction Era of the United States from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Reconstruction Era of the United States at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 14,825 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 08/21/2014)
Images on Reconstruction Era of the United States
Preview image:
Original:
Search results from Google and Bing
5
3
1
Reconstruction era (United States) legal…
Reconstruction. The term Reconstruction refers to the efforts made in the United States between 1865 and 1877 to restructure the political, legal, and economic ...
legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Reconstruction+era+(United+States)
2
9
2
Reconstruction (United States history) -- Encyclopedia Britannica
In U.S. history, the period (1865–77) that followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its ...
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/493722/Reconstruction
6
12
3
Reconstruction - PBS
Reconstruction generally refers to the period in United States history immediately following the Civil War in which the federal government set the conditions that ...
www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_reconstruct.html
1
>30
4
Reconstruction Era - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the history of the United States, the term Reconstruction Era has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_Era
3
>30
5
Reconstruction [ushistory.org]
Reconstruction refers to the period following the Civil War of rebuilding the United States. It was a time of great pain and endless questions. On what terms would ...
www.ushistory.org/us/35.asp
4
>30
6
Reconstruction — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts
Blacks won election to southern state governments and even to the U.S. Congress during this period. Among the other achievements of Reconstruction were the ...
www.history.com/topics/reconstruction
7
>30
7
Reconstruction Era - Howard University
The period after the Civil War, 1865 - 1877, was called the Reconstruction period. ... to the Constitution which would abolish slavery in the United States.
www.howard.edu/library/reference/guides/reconstructionera/default.htm
8
>30
8
Reconstruction Era - Healing a Divided Land - American History
... often in contention. Read about the people and events that shaped the Reconstruction era. ... Abraham Lincoln Biography - 16th President of the United States
americanhistory.about.com/od/reconstruction/
9
>30
9
Reconstruction Timeline
A Timeline of Reconstruction: 1865-1877. History 122 ...
chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/chron.html
10
>30
10
SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Summary of Events
Presidential Reconstruction under Johnson readmitted the southern states using ... and the Fourteenth Amendment, which made freed slaves U.S. citizens. ... in the South, meanwhile, became sharecroppers during the Reconstruction period,  ...
www.sparknotes.com/history/american/reconstruction/summary.html
Search results for "Reconstruction Era of the United States"
Google: approx. 2.240.000
Reconstruction Era of the United States in science
Open Yale Courses | The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845 ...
This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War, ... HIST 119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845-1877 ... Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition at Yale University.
The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845-1877 - Audio ...
The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845-1877 - Audio. by David Blight ... 01 - Introductions: Why Does the Civil War era have a hold on American Historical Imagination? Professor Blight offers ..... More from Yale University. Game Theory - ...
Reconstruction Era - Howard University
The period after the Civil War, 1865 - 1877, was called the Reconstruction period. ... to the Constitution which would abolish slavery in the United States.
Civil War & Reconstruction, 1861-1877 | The Gilder Lehrman ...
In 1877, soon after retiring as president of the United States, Ulysses S. ... Nau III Professor in the History of the American Civil War, University of Virginia More » ...
Reconstruction | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
It was also the beginning of the “Gilded Age” in the North, the age of big fortunes, enormous businesses, ... Essays. “An Appeal to the Women of the United States” (Washington DC, 1871 ... Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.
Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era - Wikipedia, the free ...
"Reconstruction Revisited" in Reviews in American History, Vol. 10, No. ... Reconstruction after the Civil War (1961), University of Chicago Press, 280 pages .
All we ask is Equal Rights - University of South Carolina School of Law
African-American Congressmen, Judges & Lawmakers in South Carolina. Compiled ... The period immediately following Reconstruction is even more shrouded.
Civil War & Reconstruction US History - Oxford University Press
Welcome to the Civil War & Reconstruction US History page.
Digital History: UH
Colonial Era. American Revolution. Early National Period. Pre-Civil War Era. Slavery. Civil War. Reconstruction. Gilded Age. Progressive Era. WW I. 1920s.
American Experience | Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | State ...
Dec 19, 2003 ... America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War ... The Digital History Web site, a collaboration between the University of ...
Books on the term Reconstruction Era of the United States
U. S. History (1865-Present): From Reconstruction Through ...
U. S. History (1865-Present): From Reconstruction Through ...
Ron Olson, 2007
Homework Helpers: U.S. History (1865-Present) is one of the latest books in the popular series designed to help students master the material and tackle the tests.
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era
James M. McPherson, 1988
Filled with fresh interpretations and information, puncturing old myths and challenging new ones, Battle Cry of Freedom will unquestionably become the standard one-volume history of the Civil War.James McPherson's fast-paced narrative fully integrates the political, social, and military events that crowded the two decades from the outbreak of ...
Era of Reconstruction (Vintage)
Era of Reconstruction (Vintage)
1967
"... [Kenneth M. Stampp] has woven the strands of a complicated story, and given the radical Reconstructionists a fair hearing without oversimplifying their motives. That this book is also excellent reading will not surprise those who know Mr. Stampp's other distinguished works about the Civil War."-- Willie Lee Rose, The New York Ti...
Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era: A-L
Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era: A-L
Richard Zuczek, 2006
Offers more than 260 alphabetically arranged articles on the period of Reconstruction in American history, covering persons, concepts, institutions, laws, elections, organizations, and each Southern state.
Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877
Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877
Eric Foner, 2002
This "masterful treatment of one of the most complex periods of American history" (New Republic) made history when it was originally published in 1988. It redefined how Reconstruction was viewed by historians and people everywhere in its chronicling of how Americans -- black and white -- responded to the unprecedented changes unleashed by...
United States History to 1877
United States History to 1877
Nelson Klose, 1994
Outlines and reviews the key events, movements, issues, and people of our nation's history since its founding.
Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation (Littlefield History of the Civil War Era)...
Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation (Littlefield History of the Civil War Era)...
Caroline E. Janney, 2013
"Thought-provoking. Janney engages with the important question of just how prevalent the culture of reconciliation was when it came to understanding the meaning and legacy of the Civil War."--Nina Silber, Boston University
Development of Google searches


Blog posts on the term
Reconstruction Era of the United States
Lincoln's 10 Percent Plan - NYTimes.com
With the war going well, the president struggled to find the right way to bring the Confederate states back into the Union.
opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/09/lincolns-10-percent-plan/
Legal History Blog: H-Law's "New Books in U.S. Constitutional/Legal History," Fall 2013 edition
Our friends at H-Law have sent out the Fall 2013 edition of New Books in U. S.
legalhistoryblog.blogspot.com/2013/12/h-laws-new-books-in-us.html
Mendocino County Today: December 20, 2013 | Anderson Valley Advertiser
theava.com/archives/25521
dissertation writing service: Reconstruction Era And To Kill a Mockingbird
Many important people and events were involved with the book, To deplete a Mockingbird. One of which includes the Reconstruction Era.
dissertation-writingservice.blogspot.com/2013/12/reconstruction-era-and-to-kill.html
McIntosh Trail : Racism worse in United States than in South Africa
The student news site of McIntosh High School, home of the Chiefs
mhstrail.org/opinion/2013/12/17/racism-was-worse-here-then-in-south-africa/
The Social, Political & Economic Effects of the Reconstruction Era | The Classroom | Synonym
Reconstruction was the period following the Civil War in which the national government attempted to reintegrate the Southern states that had formed the Confederacy back into the United States. From ...
classroom.synonym.com/social-political-economic-effects-reconstruction-era-6164.html
“THE MOST AWFUL PROBLEM THAT ANY NATION EVER UNDERTOOK TO SOLVE”: RECONSTRUCTION AS A CRISIS IN CITIZENSHIP ‹ Chapman Law Review
www.chapmanlawreview.com/archives/1561
Sundays With The Christianists: American History Textbooks For Unreconstructed Homeschoolers
Now that we’ve got the Civil War out of the way, our Christian-school textbooks almost seem to settle down and relax for a bit. They had a lot of ideological axe-grinding to do in discussing the causes of the Civil
wonkette.com/530038/sundays-with-the-christianists-american-history-textbooks-for-unreconstructed-homeschoolers
"Race, leadership, and the local machine: The origins of the African Am" by Clemmie L Harris
Much of what we know about the legacy of black electoral politics in the urban north stems from two important periods in United States history: Reconstruction and the late twentieth century. The political disenfranchisement of African Americans during the post-Reconstruction era and the transition from Black Power protests to elective office has been well documented by both civil rights and urban historians. What little we know about the history of black electoral politics following post-Reconstruction leading up to the late twentieth century has been largely the story of political machines and the ways in which they served as impediments to advancing civil rights agendas. In one sense the events that shaped the political expressions and transformation during the era of Black Power are valid and thus deserving of scholarly treatment. The main problem with the growing literature is that it is predicated on the notion that during the period between post-Reconstruction and World War II African American political leadership within the electoral arena had all but acquiesced to an image of powerlessness, corruption, and lack of accountability to the black community. This outcome has tended to overstate the significance of the late twentieth century as the most important period for understanding a longer history of black electoral activity in the modern era. It also privileges protest politics over electoral politics rather than examining how each shaped the other. ^ I explore more than 50 years of black electoral activity within one of America's most important northern industrial centers: the city of Philadelphia from 1915-1968. The project builds from Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois', The Philadelphia Negro. In doing so, it challenges preexisting assumptions on black electoral behavior in the urban North and it addresses important gaps in American civil rights historiography, Africana Studies, and Urban Studies.^
repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3594441/
Reconstruction — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts
For a little more than a decade after the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, the South underwent a period of social, political and economic upheaval known as Reconstruction (1865-1877).
www.history.com/topics/reconstruction
123