Vowel quadrilateral
A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels. Depending on the particular language being discussed, it can take the form of a triangle or a quadrilateral. Vertical position on the diagram denotes the vowel closeness, with close vowels at the top of the diagram, and horizontal position denotes the vowel backness, with front vowels at the left of the diagram. Vowels are unique in that their main features do not contain differences in voicing, manner, or place (articulators). Vowels differ only in the position of the tongue when voiced. The tongue moves either vertically and horizontally within the oral cavity. Vowels are produced with at least a part of their vocal tract obstructed.
In the vowel diagram,convenient reference points are provided for specifying tongue position. The position of the highest point of the arch of the tongue is considered to be the point of articulation of the vowel. The vertical dimension of the vowel diagram is known as vowel high, which includes high, central (mid), or low vowels. The horizontal dimension of the vowel diagram includes tongue advancement and identifies how far forward the tongue is located in the oral cavity during production. Vowels are also categorized by the tenseness or laxness of the tongue. The schwa [ə] is in the center of the chart and is frequently referred to as the neutral vowel. Here, the vocal tract is in its neutral state and creates a near perfect tube. For other vowels, there is a necessary movement of the vocal tract and tongue away from the neutral position, either up/down or backward/forward. The next dimension for vowels are tense/lax; here we can distinguish high/mid/low dimensions and the front/central/back dimensions. In other words, all vowels but schwas. For instance, [i] and [ɪ] or [o] and [ɔ] are very hard to tell apart, but we can categorize them into tense or lax. Tense vowels are [i] and [ɔ] . Lax vowels are [ɪ] and [o]. The next dimension for vowels are rounding. Rounding is important because it continues to help differentiate the vowels of English. For example, when you say [u], your lips are rounded but when you say [i], your lips are spread. We can categorize vowels as rounded or unrounded. So, rounded vowels are [u], [ʊ], [o], [ɔ] and the unrounded vowels are [i], [ɪ], [e], [ɛ], [æ], [ɑ], [ʌ], [ə].
The vowel systems of most languages can be represented by vowel diagrams. Usually there is a pattern of even distribution of marks on the chart, a phenomenon that is known as vowel dispersion. For most languages, the vowel system is triangular. Only 10% of languages, including the English language, have a vowel diagram that is quadrilateral. Such diagrams are termed vowel trapezia or vowel quadrilaterals. German phonologists know these as, respectively, a Vokalviereck and a Vokaltrapez.
Different vowels vary in pitch. For example, high vowels such as [i] and [u] tend to have higher fundamental frequency then low vowels such as [a]. Vowels are distinct from each other based on their acoustic form, or spectral properties. Spectral properties consist of the speech sound's fundamental frequency and its formants. Each vowel in the vowel diagram has a unique first and second formant, or F1 and F2. The frequency of the first formant refers to the width of the pharyngeal cavity and the position of the tongue on a vertical axis, ranging from open to close. The frequency of the second formant refers to the length of the oral cavity and the position of the tongue on a horizontal axis. Vowels [i], [u], and [a] are often referred to as point vowels because they represent the most extreme F1 and F2 frequencies. [a] has a high F1 frequency because of the narrow size of the pharynx and the low position of the tongue. F2 is higher in the case of [i] because the oral cavity is short and the tongue is at the front of the mouth. F2 is low in the production of [u] because the mouth is elongated and the lips are rounded while the pharynx is lowered.
The IPA vowel chart comprises the cardinal vowels, and is displayed in the form of a trapezium. By definition, no vowel sound can be plotted outside of the IPA trapezium because its four corners represent the extreme points of articulation. The vowel diagrams of most real languages are not so extreme. In English, for example, high vowels are not as high as the corners of the IPA trapezium, nor are front vowels as front.

This is an excerpt from the article Vowel quadrilateral from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Vowel quadrilateral at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 28 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 08/28/2013)
Images on Vowel quadrilateral
Preview image:
Original:
Search results from Google and Bing
2
1
1
Vowel diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels. Depending on the particular language being discussed, it can take the form of a triangle or a ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_diagram
1
>30
2
Vowel Quadrilateral - Towson
A Vowel quadrilateral is very useful in memorizing the tongue height and advancement. From the above image, it is easy to determine where each vowel falls.
tiger.towson.edu/~kmamar1/vowel_quadrilateral.html
3
>30
3
Vowel Quadrilateral
7B The Vowel quadrilateral: visualising vowel quality. English Phonetics — Classifying English Sounds. The Vowel quadrilateral is a graphic representation of ...
www.sz.uni-erlangen.de/abteilungen/medien/lorenz/phonetics_ba09/vowelchart
4
>30
4
IPA Online - Vowels - Newcastle University
Vowels. i (close front unrounded). Tongue body high against the palate, ... Click the symbols in the Vowel quadrilateral to load videos of its production by both a ...
teaching.ncl.ac.uk/ipa/vowels.html
5
>30
5
Consonants and Vowels in American English IPA Chart for ...
Page 1. Consonants and Vowels in American English. IPA Chart for Consonants. Vowel quadrilateral. Rhotic.
www.unm.edu/~atneel/shs303/Consonants%20and%20Vowels%20in%20American%20English.pdf
6
>30
6
Vowel Quadrilateral flashcards | Quizlet
Vocabulary words for Vowel quadrilateral. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.
quizlet.com/26098990/vowel-quadrilateral-flash-cards/
7
>30
7
IPA Vowel Symbols - Speech Resource Pages - Macquarie University
In this table the "Vowel quadrilateral" roughly represents tongue position, with positions to the left of the diagram representing vowels produced with the tongue  ...
clas.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/transcription/ipa/ipa_vowel.html
8
>30
8
IPA Cardinal Vowels - KeyTap
Jun 1, 2012 ... Here are five IPA Vowel quadrilaterals compared: three IPA French ... The French Quadrilateral focuses attention on how the vowels exhibit less ...
www.keytap.com/french/IPA.aspx
9
>30
9
Vowels - York University
VOWELS. Front. Central. Back. Close. i. y. È. Ë. ¨ u. IY. U. Close-mid. e P. e. Þ. Ø o. ´. Open-mid. E {. ‰. P. ø O. Open vowels are articulated with the.
www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/vowels.html
10
>30
10
Vowel - encyclopedia article - Citizendium
Phoneticians and phonologists represent vowels on a diagram called the 'Vowel quadrilateral', a shape which simplifies ...
en.citizendium.org/wiki/Vowel
Search results for "Vowel quadrilateral"
Google: approx. 32.700
Vowel quadrilateral in science
Vowels - York University
VOWELS. Front. Central. Back. Close. i. y. È. Ë. ¨ u. IY. U. Close-mid. e P. e. Þ. Ø o. ´. Open-mid. E {. ‰. P. ø O. Open vowels are articulated with the.
IPA Vowel Symbols - Speech Resource Pages - Macquarie University
Macquarie University, Sydney Faculty of Human Sciences ... In this table the "Vowel quadrilateral" roughly represents tongue position, with positions to the left of ...
Vowel diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Such diagrams are termed vowel trapezia or Vowel quadrilaterals. German ... Close. Blank vowel trapezoid.svg ... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.
IPA Online - Vowels - Newcastle University
Vowels. i (close front unrounded). Tongue body high against the palate, ... Click the symbols in the Vowel quadrilateral to load videos of its production by both a ...
Cardinal Vowels
(Refer to IPA vowel chart.) What the points marked on the Vowel quadrilateral actually represent is open to dispute. As a first, working hypothesis, we will take the ...
Symbols for American English Vowel Sounds - University of ...
Apr 20, 2008 ... A typical dialect of American English has about 15 distinctive vowel ... the Cardinal Vowel quadrilateral by John Wells, Susan Ramsaran, and ...
Vowel Theories - SAIL
Vowels repesented as points in a quadrilateral that represent the positions of the ... Reference (cardinal) vowels on the periphery of the Vowel quadrilateral were ...
Characterizing the distribution of the quadrilateral vowel space area ...
Characterizing the distribution of the quadrilateral vowel space area - Arizona State University. SciVal Experts.
IPA Cardinal Vowels - KeyTap
Jun 1, 2012 ... The French Quadrilateral focuses attention on how the vowels exhibit less spread ... Quadrilateral and audio samples: University of Victoria IPA ...
UCL Speech, Hearing & Phonetic Sciences
The Vowel Machine ... Vgrid gives you practice at using the Vowel quadrilateral. ... University College London - Gower Street - London - WC1E 6BT - Telephone:  ...
Books on the term Vowel quadrilateral
Speech Science Primer: Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception ...
Lawrence J. Raphael, Gloria J. Borden, Katherine S. Harris, 2007
Figure 6.22 depicts the traditional Vowel quadrilateral (sometimes called the vowel triangle, although it has four sides). The basic parameters of this quadrilateral are tongue height (high to low) and tongue advancement (front to back) .
Handbook of Vowels and Vowel Disorders (Language and Speech Disorders)
Handbook of Vowels and Vowel Disorders (Language and Speech Disorders)
Martin J. Ball and Fiona E. Gibbon, 2012
In the general study of speech and phonetics, vowels have stood in second place to consonants. But what vowels are, how they differ from one another, how they vary among speakers, and how they are subject to disorder, are questions that require a closer examination. This Handbook presents a comprehensive, cogent, and up-to-date analysis of the vowe...
Articulation and Phonology Resource Guide for School-age ...
Ann Bosma Smit, 2004
Broad Transcription of Vowels English vowels are usually described in terms of their location on the Vowel quadrilateral, shown in Figure 1-1. In this figure the vertical dimension of the quadrilateral represents the vowel height in terms of ...
A Manual of English Phonetics and Phonology: Twelve Lessons ...
Peter Burleigh, 2011
Depending on the particular language under description, the vowel symbols are superimposed on the space within a triangle or a quadrilateral. Such a vowel chart, or vowel diagram, was first devised by Daniel Jones. It reflects roughly the  ...
A Dictionary of Psychology (Oxford Paperback Reference)
A Dictionary of Psychology (Oxford Paperback Reference)
Andrew Colman, 2009
Joined by a distinguished group of advisory editors, prolific author and editor Colman (psychology, Univ. of Leicester, U.K.) offers more than 10,500 definitions of terms in psychology. The entries range from neuroanatomy and psychoanalysis to statistics and pharmacology, and they often cover etymology and history as well as language. Weighty in su...
Terminology of Communication Disorders: Speech-language-hearing
Lucille Nicolosi, Elizabeth Harryman, Janet Kresheck, 2004
Vowel sound produced with added muscle tension, which is long in duration; authorities differ as to which vowels belong to this ... processes. vowel neutralization See under substitution, under phonological processes. Vowel quadrilateral ...
Introducing Phonetic Science
Michael Ashby, John Maidment, 2005
The area in the oral cavity within which the highest point of the tongue must occur for the articulation of a vowel is roughly like the quadrilateral shown in Figure 5.6. The quality of a particular vowel can be indicated by placing a dot on the ...
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Association, 1999
This book is a comprehensive guide to the International Phonetic Alphabet, widely used for over a century to transcribe the sounds of languages. The Handbook is in three parts: Part I contains an introduction to phonetic description and exemplification of the use of phonetic symbols; Part II consists of twenty-nine "Illustrations" of the ...
Development of Google searches


Blog posts on the term
Vowel quadrilateral
Vowel diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_diagram
SLP Mommy of Apraxia: Vowel Viz Schools App Review and Giveaway!!
The people over at Complete Speech and Michelle over at Trust Me, I'm a Mom and myself all teamed up to offer you a great giveaway for the visual feedback app VowelViz! I was not paid to review the app and am only offering my personal opinion not only as a mother with a child who has a speech delay, but also as an SLP who works with kids. I was really excited about VowelViz because I love visual feedback to aid in therapy. The price for this type of programming has typically been very expensive, but since tablets have made many more things easily accessible, the people at Complete Speech created a quality and affordable app that provides visual feedback for vowels and the vocalic R sound. The company has offered great video tutorials to start using the app as well.
slpmommyofapraxia.blogspot.com/2014/04/vowel-viz-schools-app-review-and.html
Vowels in IPA » Everyday Language
Oct 19 Vowels in IPA Categories: Phonetics by Angela Polloni There is a legitimate reason for your doctor asking you to say “ah” when examining your throat. This particular vowel sound keeps your tongue low in your mouth (out of the doctor’s way) and like all vowels, its sound can be held for a long period of time due to the vocal tract being open. IPA (the International Phonetic Alphabet) is a system of symbols used by Speech-Language Pathologists to standardize the method for recording speech sounds produced by the patient.
everydaylanguage.qwriting.qc.cuny.edu/2013/10/19/vowels-in-ipa/
Vowel Quadrilateral
tiger.towson.edu/~kmamar1/vowel_quadrilateral.html
Vowels on Pinterest
Pins about Vowels hand-picked by Pinner Alexandra Nellis | See more about phonics activities, silent e and word families.
www.pinterest.com/alexandranellis/vowels/
John Wells’s phonetic blog: vowel colour
What colour would you say ɛ was? And ɒ? For many of us those questions may seem pretty fatuous. We’re used to the metaphorical use of the term “vowel colour” as a synonym of “vowel quality”: something to be described in terms of front/back, close/open (or high/low), and rounded/unrounded.
phonetic-blog.blogspot.com/2011/09/vowel-colour.html
The vowel space | speech talk
speech talk - thoughts on English, speech & language
englishspeechservices.com/blog/the-vowel-space/
The British English vowel system | speech talk
speech talk - thoughts on English, speech & language
englishspeechservices.com/blog/british-vowels/
Copy of The Vowel Quadrilateral by Eduardo Delgado on Prezi
prezi.com/sydq4vdvcltc/copy-of-the-vowel-quadrilateral/
123