Whorf hypothesis
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (i) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour. The term "Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis" is a misnomer, as Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored anything, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis. The distinction between a weak and a strong version of the hypothesis is also a later invention, as Sapir and Whorf never set up such a dichotomy, although often in their writings their views of this relativity principle are phrased in stronger or weaker terms.
The idea was first clearly expressed by 19th-century thinkers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt, who saw language as the expression of the spirit of a nation. Members of the early 20th-century school of American anthropology headed by Franz Boas and Edward Sapir also embraced forms of the idea to one extent or another, but Sapir in particular wrote more often against than in favor of anything like linguistic determinism. Sapir's student Benjamin Lee Whorf came to be seen as the primary proponent as a result of his published observations of how he perceived linguistic differences to have consequences in human cognition and behavior. Harry Hoijer, one of Sapir's students, introduced the term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis", even though the two scholars never actually advanced any such hypothesis. A strong version of relativist theory was developed from the late 1920s by the German linguist Leo Weisgerber. Whorf's principle of linguistic relativity was reformulated as a testable hypothesis by Roger Brown and Eric Lenneberg who conducted experiments designed to find out whether color perception varies between speakers of languages that classified colors differently. As the study of the universal nature of human language and cognition came into focus in the 1960s the idea of linguistic relativity fell out of favour among linguists. A 1969 study by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay demonstrated the existence of universal semantic constraints in the field of color terminology which was widely seen to discredit the existence of linguistic relativity in this domain, although this conclusion has been disputed by relativist researchers.
From the late 1980s a new school of linguistic relativity scholars have examined the effects of differences in linguistic categorization on cognition, finding broad support for non-deterministic versions of the hypothesis in experimental contexts. Some effects of linguistic relativity have been shown in several semantic domains, although they are generally weak. Currently, a balanced view of linguistic relativity is espoused by most linguists holding that language influences certain kinds of cognitive processes in non-trivial ways, but that other processes are better seen as subject to universal factors. Research is focused on exploring the ways and extent to which language influences thought. The principle of linguistic relativity and the relation between language and thought has also received attention in varying academic fields from philosophy to psychology and anthropology, and it has also inspired and colored works of fiction and the invention of constructed languages.

This is an excerpt from the article Whorf hypothesis from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Whorf hypothesis at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 34 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 06/07/2013)
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Sapir–Whorf hypothesis - Princeton University
The linguistic relativity principle, or the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, is the idea that differences in the way languages encode cultural and cognitive categories affect ...
www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Sapir%E2%80%93Whorf_hypothesis.html
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Ask A Linguist FAQ: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - LINGUIST List
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the theory that an individual's thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages that individual speaks.
linguistlist.org/ask-ling/sapir.cfm
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Linguistic relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (i) the strong version that language ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - The Free Dictionary
Sa·pir-Whorf hypothesis (s -pîr wôrf , -hwôrf ). n. A hypothesis holding that the structure of a language affects the perceptions of reality of its speakers and thus ...
www.thefreedictionary.com/Sapir-Whorf+hypothesis
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The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
These notes on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis concerning linguistic relativity and determinism are from a book on 'The Act of Writing' by Daniel Chandler.
users.aber.ac.uk/dgc/whorf.html
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Definition of Whorf Hypothesis | Chegg.com
Definition of Whorf hypothesis and related terms and concepts.
www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/whorf-hypothesis-13
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Relativism > The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Stanford ...
This view is sometimes called the Whorf-hypothesis or the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, after the linguists who made it famous. But the label linguistic relativity, which ...
plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/supplement2.html
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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - Fresno State Web…
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. R. S. Badhesha Spring 2002. It is often thought that the reality expressed in spoken word is the very same as the reality which is ...
zimmer.csufresno.edu/~johnca/spch100/4-9-sapir.htm
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The Whorfian Hypothesis
The hypothesis offered by Whorf is: That the commonly held belief that the cognitive prosesses of all human beings possess a common logical structure which ...
www.isss.org/primer/whorf.htm
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - Grammar and Composition - About.com
The linguistic theory that the semantic structure of a language shapes or limits the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world.
grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/SapirWhorf.htm
Search results for "Whorf hypothesis"
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Whorf hypothesis in science
Linguistic relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the ..... this idea : his academic peers at Yale University considered the 'amateur' Whorf to be ...
[PDF]What Is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? - Jstor
Michigan State University. The history of empirical research on the Sapir- Whorf hypothesis is reviewed. A more sen- sitive test of the hypothesis is devised and a ...
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
These notes on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis concerning linguistic relativity and determinism are from a book on 'The Act of Writing' by Daniel Chandler.
Relativism > The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Stanford ...
Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University ... This view is sometimes called the Whorf-hypothesis or the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, after the ... advantage that makes it easier to separate the hypothesis from the details of Whorf's views, ...
[PDF]What Is the Sapir?Whorf Hypothesis? - International Computer ...
Michigan State University. The history of empirical research on the Sapir- Whorf hypothesis is reviewed. A more sen- sitive test of the hypothesis is devised and a ...
Ask A Linguist FAQ: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - LINGUIST List
Eastern Michigan University ... The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the theory that an individual's thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages ...
[PDF]Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - University of Colorado ...
Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. (AKA linguistic relativity). Linguistics 3430. Fall 2007. Part 1. What is linguistic relativity? A. Definition. 1. Linguistic ...
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - SlideShare
Aug 10, 2011 ... Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. by University of the Philippines Mindanao. 1,921 views. My presentation for Anthropological Linguistics class. More…
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
Apr 3, 2013 ... Hmm. That last seems to assume the SapirWhorfHypothesis . ..... backing off," said Lila Gleitman, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania.
What Is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? - Wiley Online Library
Oct 19, 2009 ... PAUL KAY is Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of ... The history of empirical research on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is reviewed.
Books on the term Whorf hypothesis
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Renate Giesbrecht, 2009
Whorf forms the main part of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, because he was introduced by Sapir to his general approach to linguistics and then extended it in his beliefs.
Metaphor and the Sapir-Whorf-Hypothesis: An Attempt to Explore and ...
Metaphor and the Sapir-Whorf-Hypothesis: An Attempt to Explore and ...
Christoph Burger, 2010
In this paper I will discuss two different approaches investigating the nature of language and the relation between language and thought: (1) the Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis (also called theory of linguistic relativity) and (2) the metaphor ...
Linguistics for Everyone: An Introduction
Linguistics for Everyone: An Introduction
Kristin Denham, Anne C. Lobeck, 2009
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Benjamin Whorf's claim that language determines our perceptions of the world A well-known example of the “strong” form of this hypothesis, that language determines how we think, was proposed by Benjamin Whorf in ...
Language and Culture
Language and Culture
Claire Kramsch, 1998
Whorf's views on the interdependence of language and thought have become known under the name of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis makes the claim that the structure of the language one ...
Introduction to classical Chinese philosophy
Introduction to classical Chinese philosophy
Bryan W. Van Norden, 2011
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which takes its name fr om linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, is one of the most ... The strong version of the Sapir- Whorf hypothesis asserts that the language a person uses determines the way she ...
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Whorf hypothesis
W is for Whorf’s Hypothesis | Hopes and Dreams: My Writing and My Sons
The challenges of maintaining a professional writing career while being a good mother for two special needs sons. (by LillianC)
lillian888.wordpress.com/2013/04/25/w-is-for-whorfs-hypothesis/
Linguistic Addiction: The Sapir - Whorf hypothesis
This hypothesis says that a man´s language moulds his perception of reality, or that a world a man inhabits is a linguistic construct, has become associated with the names of Americans Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf. Sapir and Whorf fully shared the relativism of Boas and his Desctiptivist successors, with its emphasis on the alienness of exotic languages, while never being influenced by the behaviorism of Bloomfield.
tearsandrosesofchaif.blogspot.com/2013/05/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis_15.html
Language Notes # 31: Linguistic Relativity: Sapir-Whorf or Boas-Jakobson? | Leaky Grammar
Second Language Acquisition / Language Learning / Linguistics (by Gavin)
leakygrammar.net/2013/05/28/language-notes-31-linguistic-relativity-sapir-whorf-or-boas-jakobson/
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis is Not True, Even in History of Economic Thought | Increasing Marginal Utility
A blog so good it violates the law of diminishing marginal utility.
increasingmu.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis-is-not-true-even-in-history-of-economic-thought/
THE SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS | Mirjam's Language Blog
a blog about language, linguistics and linguistic relativism (by Mirjam)
languagewasmyfirstlove.wordpress.com/2013/04/26/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis | Submitted For Your Perusal
(by Matt Thomas)
submittedforyourperusal.com/2013/02/26/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
Team Aqualinguistics: Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
The linguistic relativity principle, or the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, is the idea that differences in the way language encode cultural and cognitive categories affect the way people think, so that speakers of different languages will tend to think and behave differently depending on the language they use. The hypothesis is generally understood as having two different versions: (i) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior.
teamaqualinguistics.blogspot.com/2013/04/sapirwhorf-hypothesis.html
Outline of Whorf Hypothesis and discussion of influence of language on thought in the area of color.
An essay for the 2012 Undergraduate Awards Competition by Mary Brennan. Originally submitted for Politics Major & Minor Psychology at University College Dublin, with lecturer Dr.
www.slashdocs.com/kwknv/outline-of-whorf-hypothesis-and-discussion-of-influence-of-language-on-thought-in-the-area-of-color.html
Top language, top Bible, top people: Melvyn Bragg meets the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis | BadLinguistics
To commemorate the 400th anniversary of the publication of the King James Version of the Bible in English, Melvyn Bragg (a man not noted for his reliability on such matters—see my post for March 30th last year) managed to get himself a BBC docum...
badlinguistics.wordpress.com/2011/03/27/top-language-top-bible-top-people-melvyn-brag/
New Speak, Deja Vu and Feminine Bridges: The Sapir Whorf Hypothesis | Anglophonism
[ɑ̃.ɡlɔ.fɔn.ɪz.(ə)m]
anglophonism.wordpress.com/2013/01/19/new-speak-deja-vu-and-feminine-bridges-the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
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