Whorf hypothesis
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (i) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour. The term "Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis" is a misnomer, as Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored anything, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis. The distinction between a weak and a strong version of the hypothesis is also a later invention, as Sapir and Whorf never set up such a dichotomy, although often in their writings their views of this relativity principle are phrased in stronger or weaker terms.
The idea was first clearly expressed by 19th-century thinkers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt, who saw language as the expression of the spirit of a nation. Members of the early 20th-century school of American anthropology headed by Franz Boas and Edward Sapir also embraced forms of the idea to one extent or another, but Sapir in particular wrote more often against than in favor of anything like linguistic determinism. Sapir's student Benjamin Lee Whorf came to be seen as the primary proponent as a result of his published observations of how he perceived linguistic differences to have consequences in human cognition and behavior. Harry Hoijer, one of Sapir's students, introduced the term "Sapir–Whorf hypothesis", even though the two scholars never actually advanced any such hypothesis. A strong version of relativist theory was developed from the late 1920s by the German linguist Leo Weisgerber. Whorf's principle of linguistic relativity was reformulated as a testable hypothesis by Roger Brown and Eric Lenneberg who conducted experiments designed to find out whether color perception varies between speakers of languages that classified colors differently. As the study of the universal nature of human language and cognition came into focus in the 1960s the idea of linguistic relativity fell out of favour among linguists. A 1969 study by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay demonstrated the existence of universal semantic constraints in the field of color terminology which was widely seen to discredit the existence of linguistic relativity in this domain, although this conclusion has been disputed by relativist researchers.
From the late 1980s a new school of linguistic relativity scholars have examined the effects of differences in linguistic categorization on cognition, finding broad support for non-deterministic versions of the hypothesis in experimental contexts. Some effects of linguistic relativity have been shown in several semantic domains, although they are generally weak. Currently, a balanced view of linguistic relativity is espoused by most linguists holding that language influences certain kinds of cognitive processes in non-trivial ways, but that other processes are better seen as subject to universal factors. Research is focused on exploring the ways and extent to which language influences thought. The principle of linguistic relativity and the relation between language and thought has also received attention in varying academic fields from philosophy to psychology and anthropology, and it has also inspired and colored works of fiction and the invention of constructed languages.

This is an excerpt from the article Whorf hypothesis from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - The Free Dictionary
A hypothesis holding that the structure of a language affects the perceptions of reality of its speakers and thus influences their thought patterns and worldviews.
www.thefreedictionary.com/Sapir-Whorf+hypothesis
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What Is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? - ICSI | ICSI
What Is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? PAUL KAY University of Calqornia, Berkeley WILLETT KEMPTON Michigan State University The history of empirical research ...
www1.icsi.berkeley.edu/~kay/Kay&Kempton.1984.pdf
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Relativism > The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Stanford ...
This view is sometimes called the Whorf-hypothesis or the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, after the linguists who made it famous. But the label linguistic relativity, which ...
plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/supplement2.html
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The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - Angelfire: Welcome to …
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. From George Orwell's 1984 (1948): "The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view ...
www.angelfire.com/journal/worldtour99/sapirwhorf.html
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Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - University of Colorado ...
Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. (AKA linguistic relativity). Linguistics 3430. Fall 2007. Part 1. What is linguistic relativity? A. Definition. 1. Linguistic ...
www.colorado.edu/linguistics/courses/LAM3430/Whorflecture.pdf
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Linguistic relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined to include two versions. The strong version says that language ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity
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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis | i love english language
Since its inception in the 1920s and 1930s, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis has caused controversy and spawned research in a variety of disciplines including ...
aggslanguage.wordpress.com/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
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What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. • Study done by Kay & Kempton. • Conclusions with regards to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. • New evidence and general conclusions  ...
www.blutner.de/color/Sapir-Whorf.pdf
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Definition of Whorf Hypothesis | Chegg.com
The Whorf hypothesis is the view that language shapes cognition; that is, concepts and ways of thinking depend on language. People who speak significantly ...
www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/whorf-hypothesis-13
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Ask A Linguist FAQ: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - LINGUIST List
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the theory that an individual's thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages that individual speaks.
linguistlist.org/ask-ling/sapir.cfm
Search results for "Whorf hypothesis"
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Whorf hypothesis in science
Linguistic relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the ..... academic peers at Yale University considered the 'amateur' Whorf to be the best man ...
[PDF]What Is the Sapir?Whorf Hypothesis? - International Computer ...
The history of empirical research on the Sapir- Whorf hypothesis is reviewed. A more ... Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - visual-memory.co.uk
These notes on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis concerning linguistic relativity and determinism are from a book on 'The ... Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Relativism > The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Stanford ...
This view is sometimes called the Whorf-hypothesis or the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis, after the ... has the advantage that makes it easier to separate the hypothesis from the details of Whorf's views, ..... USA (Main Site) CSLI, Stanford University.
[PDF]Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - University of Colorado ...
Introduction to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. (AKA linguistic relativity). Linguistics 3430. Fall 2007. Part 1. What is linguistic relativity? A. Definition. 1. Linguistic ...
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and how valid is it? | Mina ...
This essay will examine the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis of language relativity and it ... but does not determine the way we act (University Of Virginia, 2006: 1 – 2) .
The influence of language on thought Study Benjamin Whorf ...
The influence of language on thought Study Benjamin Whorf hypothesis and Edward Sapir1 Wahyu Widhiarso Gadjah Mada University Language is the ...
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - Cognitive Linguistics
In linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship... ... By John A. Lucy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[PDF]Emotional Sapir–Whorf hypothesis - Leonid Perlovsky
An emotional version of Sapir–Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language ... Corresponding address: Harvard University, SEAS, Cambridge, USA .
Benjamin Lee Whorf | Linguistics - Yale University
Whorf is widely known for his ideas about linguistic relativity, the hypothesis ... up an interest in linguistics late in his life, studying with Sapir at Yale University.
Books on the term Whorf hypothesis
Metaphor and the Sapir-Whorf-Hypothesis: An Attempt to ...
Christoph Burger, 2010
In this paper I will discuss two different approaches investigating the nature of language and the relation between language and thought: (1) the Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis (also called theory of linguistic relativity) and (2) the metaphor ...
Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf
Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf
1964
The pioneering linguist Benjamin Whorf (1897--1941) grasped the relationship between human language and human thinking: how language can shape our innermost thoughts. His basic thesis is that our perception of the world and our ways of thinking about it are deeply influenced by the structure of the languages we speak. The writings collected in this...
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Renate Giesbrecht, 2009
Whorf forms the main part of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, because he was introduced by Sapir to his general approach to linguistics and then extended it in his beliefs.
Language Diversity and Thought: A Reformulation of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Studies in the Social...
Language Diversity and Thought: A Reformulation of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Studies in the Social...
1992
Language Diversity and Thought examines the Sapir-Whorf linguistic relativity hypothesis: the proposal that the grammar of the particular language that we speak affects the way we think about reality. Adopting a historical approach, the book reviews the various lines of empirical inquiry that arose in America in response to the ideas of anthropolog...
Language, Mind, and Culture : A Practical Introduction: A ...
Department of American Studies Eotvos Lorand University Zoltan Kovecses Professor of Linguistics, 2006
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis As mentioned in chapter 1, "linguistic relativity" is an influential hypothesis that concerns the relationship between the language we speak and the way we think and act. It was developed by a number of scholars, ...
The Language Hoax: Why the World Looks the Same in Any Language
The Language Hoax: Why the World Looks the Same in Any Language
John H. McWhorter, 2014
Japanese has a term that covers both green and blue. Russian has separate terms for dark and light blue. Does this mean that Russians perceive these colors differently from Japanese people? Does language control and limit the way we think? This short, opinionated book addresses the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which argues that the language we speak sha...
Psychology of Language
David Carroll, 2007
n The Whorf hypothesis states that the structure of a language determines a native speaker's worldview. Different languages are assumed to lead to different worldviews. n Psychological studies of the Whorf hypothesis have examined whether ...
Metaphor and the Sapir-Whorf-Hypothesis: An Attempt to Explore and Integrate the Theory of Metaphor by Lakoff...
Metaphor and the Sapir-Whorf-Hypothesis: An Attempt to Explore and Integrate the Theory of Metaphor by Lakoff...
Christoph Burger, 2010
Scholarly Research Paper from the year 2010 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1, University of Vienna, language: English, abstract: In this paper I will discuss two different approaches investigating the nature of language and the relation between language and thought: (1) the Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis (also ...
Culture and Language Use
Gunter Senft, Jan-Ola Östman, Jef Verschueren, 2009
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Recognition of the patterning of language, and of the implications of pattern for culture structure and process, has grown in importance throughout the history of the subfield. An idea that dates back well into the ...
The Whorf Theory Complex: A critical reconstruction (Studies in the History of the Language Sciences)
The Whorf Theory Complex: A critical reconstruction (Studies in the History of the Language Sciences)
1996
At last — a comprehensive account of the ideas of Benjamin Lee Whorf which not only explains the nature and logic of the linguistic relativity principle but also situates it within a larger ‘theory complex’ delineated in fascinating detail. Whorf’s almost unknown unpublished writings (as well as his published papers) are drawn on to show how twelve...
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Blog posts on the term
Whorf hypothesis
Ask A Linguist FAQ: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
linguistlist.org/ask-ling/sapir.cfm
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - RationalWiki
rationalwiki.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis
Sapir-whorf hypothesis | Define Sapir-whorf hypothesis at Dictionary.com
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis definition, a theory developed by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf that states that the structure of a language determines or greatly influences the modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken. See more.
dictionary.reference.com/browse/sapir-whorf+hypothesis
Strong and weak versions of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis | BLOG|ON|LINGUISTICS
The theory of linguistic relativity is known in two versions: the strong hypothesis (= linguistic determinism) and the weak hypothesis. It is necessary to clarify that the words "strong" and "weak" are not related to the strength of the scholarly argumentation, but rather to the degree to which language is assumed to influence our thought…
blogonlinguistics.wordpress.com/2013/09/25/strongweak-versions-of-sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis: definition of Sapir–Whorf hypothesis in Oxford dictionary (American English) (US)
Definition of Sapir–Whorf hypothesis in American English in Oxford dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation and example sentences. English to English reference content (US).
www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/Sapir%E2%80%93Whorf-hypothesis
Tag Archive: Sapir-Whorf hypothesis | OxfordWords blog
blog.oxforddictionaries.com/tag/sapir-whorf-hypothesis/
Linguistic Relativity, Whorf, Linguistic Anthropology
Kathryn Woolard, SLA President The question of linguistic relativity is the topic of an August 29, 2010 New York Times magazine article, “You Are What You Speak” Many linguistic anthropologists were surprised by the article’s representation of Benjamin Lee Whorf’s ideas and by the scant reference to the longstanding tradition of research in linguistic anthropology. Most often known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis or the theory of linguistic relativity, the notion that the diversity of linguistic structures affects how people perceive and think about the world has been a canonical topic of American linguistic anthropology.
linguisticanthropology.org/blog/2010/09/01/linguistic-relativity-whorf-linguistic-anthropology/
Linguistic relativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - Definition and Examples
The linguistic theory that the semantic structure of a language shapes or limits the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world.
grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/SapirWhorf.htm
The Whorfian Hypothesis: Language and Thought | Behavioural Science Blog
Where are all the Eskimos gone? The question of language and though and its reciprocal influence has been discussed countless times. It goes back all the way to the Greeks and probably even further. In the last 30s of last century the businessman and linguist Benjamin Whorf postulated what would be know as the Whorfian-Hypothesis.…
behaviouralscience.net/2007/10/31/the-whorfian-hypothesis-language-and-thought/
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