X-Ray Microscope
An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects.
Unlike visible light, X-rays do not reflect or refract easily, and they are invisible to the human eye. Therefore the basic process of an X-ray microscope is to expose film or use a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector to detect X-rays that pass through the specimen. It is a contrast imaging technology using the difference in absorption of soft x-ray in the water window region (wavelength region: 2.3 - 4.4 nm, photon energy region: 0.28 - 0.53 keV) by the carbon atom (main element composing the living cell) and the oxygen atom (main element for water).
Early X-ray microscopes by Paul Kirkpatrick and Albert Baez used grazing incidence reflective optics to focus the X-rays, which grazed X-rays off parabolic curved mirrors at a very high angle of incidence. An alternative method of focusing X-rays is to use a tiny fresnel zone plate of concentric gold or nickel rings on a silicon dioxide substrate. Sir Lawrence Bragg produced some of the first usable X-ray images with his apparatus in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s Newberry produced a shadow X-ray microscope which placed the specimen between the source and a target plate, this became the basis for the first commercial X-ray microscopes from the General Electric Company.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS)[1] in Berkeley CA is home to XM-1 (http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/BL612/), a full field soft X-ray microscope operated by the Center for X-ray Optics [2] and dedicated to various applications in modern nanoscience, such as nanomagnetic materials, environmental and materials sciences and biology. XM-1 uses an X-ray lens to focus X-rays on a CCD, in a manner similar to an optical microscope. XM-1 held the world record in spatial resolution with Fresnel zone plates down to 15 nm and is able to combine high spatial resolution with a sub-100ps time resolution to study e.g. ultrafast spin dynamics. In July 2012, a group at DESY claimed a record spatial resolution of 10 nm, by using the hard X-ray scanning microscope at PETRA III.
The ALS is also home to the world's first soft x-ray microscope designed for biological and biomedical research. This new instrument, XM-2 was designed and built by scientists from the National Center for X-ray Tomography (http://ncxt.lbl.gov). XM-2 is capable of producing 3-Dimensional tomograms of cells.
Sources of soft X-rays suitable for microscopy, such as synchrotron radiation sources, have fairly low brightness of the required wavelengths, so an alternative method of image formation is scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy. Here the X-rays are focused to a point and the sample is mechanically scanned through the produced focal spot. At each point the transmitted X-rays are recorded with a detector such as a proportional counter or an avalanche photodiode. This type of Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) was first developed by researchers at Stony Brook University and was employed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
The resolution of X-ray microscopy lies between that of the optical microscope and the electron microscope. It has an advantage over conventional electron microscopy in that it can view biological samples in their natural state. Electron microscopy is widely used to obtain images with nanometer level resolution but the relatively thick living cell cannot be observed as the sample has to be chemically fixed, dehydrated, embedded in resin, then sliced ultra thin. However, it should be mentioned that cryo-electron microscopy allows the observation of biological specimens in their hydrated natural state, albeit embedded in water ice. Until now, resolutions of 30 nanometer are possible using the Fresnel zone plate lens which forms the image using the soft x-rays emitted from a synchrotron. Recently, the use of soft x-rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas rather than synchrotron radiation is becoming more popular.
Additionally, X-rays cause fluorescence in most materials, and these emissions can be analyzed to determine the chemical elements of an imaged object. Another use is to generate diffraction patterns, a process used in X-ray crystallography. By analyzing the internal reflections of a diffraction pattern (usually with a computer program), the three-dimensional structure of a crystal can be determined down to the placement of individual atoms within its molecules. X-ray microscopes are sometimes used for these analyses because the samples are too small to be analyzed in any other way.

This is an excerpt from the article X-Ray Microscope from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article X-Ray Microscope at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 1,717 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 11/17/2013)
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X-ray microscope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An X-Ray Microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to ... Early X-Ray Microscopes by Paul Kirkpatrick and Albert Baez used grazing ...
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CXRO - X-Ray Microscopy
X-ray imaging of nanoscale structures and processes. XM-1, a soft x-ray full-field microscope.
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X-ray microscope | Rigaku - X-ray analytical instrumentation
Rigaku nano3DX is a true X-Ray Microscope (XRM) with the ability to measure relatively large samples at high resolution. This is accomplished by using a high  ...
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Welcome to Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy | Xradia – Products
11 Jul 2013 ... Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy: 3D X-Ray Microscopes for Science & Industry. Right Left ... X-ray microscopy for hierarchical multiscale materials.
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Microscopy - X-ray optics
An X-Ray Microscope is an instrument used to produce enlarged images of samples illuminated with X-rays. There are two main principles of microscopes to be ...
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X-Ray Microscopy | Bruker EST
X-Ray Microscopes have about ten times better resolution than visible light microscopes with currently available optics. Absorption spectroscopy and ...
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Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy
Scanning transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) principle is a simple one. [1] A zone plate focuses X-ray beam into a small spot, a sample is scanned in the ...
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X-ray Microscopy - YouTube
6 Dec 2014 ... The Xradia Versa family and Xradia Ultra lab platforms by ZEISS offer a multi- lengthscale solution. State of the art X-ray computed tomography ...
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Highest resolution ever with X-ray microscopy -- ScienceDaily
10 Sep 2014 ... A record-setting X-ray microscopy experiment may have ushered in a new era for nanoscale imaging. Working at the U.S. Department of ...
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Mar 12, 2015 ... The University of Western Australia ... X-ray microscopy (XRM) is an imaging modality also known as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).
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Electron and X-Ray Microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials ... University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray ...
X-ray microscope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The highest energy X-rays which penetrate the hohlraum can be visualized ... at Stony Brook University and was employed at the National Synchrotron Light ...
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The international conference on x-ray microscopy is a gathering for the ... University of California at San Francisco, USA; Mi-Young Im, Center for X-ray Optics, ...
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High-resolution X-ray CT provides non-destructive three-dimensional mapping of ... use this instrument to characterize microscopic cracks within an intact specimen. ... Imaging data was acquired through the Cornell University Biotechnology ...
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Jan 4, 2013 ... The X-Ray Microscope was built in the early 1990s, one of the first beam lines to be added to ASTRID. For many years the microscope was used ...
Books on the term X-Ray Microscope
X-Ray Microscopy
V. E. Cosslett, W. C. Nixon, 2014
LANGNER, G. (19600). X-ray Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Amsterdam: Elsevier), 31. [86] LANGNER, G. (1960 b). X-ray Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis (Amsterdam: Elsevier), 90. [86] LARSSON, S. (1957). Exp. Cell Res. 12, 666.
Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis: Third Edition
Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis: Third Edition
2007
This text provides students as well as practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers and th...
x-ray microscopy
Günter Schmahl, 1984
Mounting the specimen for projection or reflexion X-ray microscopy. Many of the biological specimens need no preparation and can be exposed to the X-ray beam without special support, such as parts of plant leaves, stems, flowers, feathers, ...
X-Ray Diffraction: A Practical Approach (Artech House Telecommunications)
X-Ray Diffraction: A Practical Approach (Artech House Telecommunications)
C. Suryanarayana, 1998
In this, the only book available to combine both theoretical and practical aspects of x-ray diffraction, the authors emphasize a "hands on" approach through experiments and examples based on actual laboratory data.Part I presents the basics of x-ray diffraction and explains its use in obtaining structural and chemical information. In Part...
Neutron and X-ray Microscopy [electronic Resource]
Jay Theodore Cremer, Ted Cremer, 2012
Jay Theodore Cremer, Ted Cremer. Born, M., & Wolf, E. (2002). Principles of Optics, edition 7. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK. Bragg, W. H., & Bragg, W. L. (1913). The reflection of x—rays by crystals. Proceedings of the Royal ...
X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis 1992, Proceedings of the 13th INT Conference, 31 August-4 September 1992, Manchester...
X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis 1992, Proceedings of the 13th INT Conference, 31 August-4 September 1992, Manchester...
P.B. Kenway, 1993
The first ICXOM congress held in Cambridge was the brain-child of Dr. Ellis Cosslett, founder of the Electron Optics Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. Dr. Cosslett pioneered research in x-ray optics and microanalysis and retained a close interest in all subject applications for this area of research, including physics, materials science, chemist...
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ZEISS Microscopy, Jena, Germany. 6,635 likes · 163 talking about this. ZEISS Microscopy is a leader in microscopy for biomedical and materials research,...
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X-ray Micro-CT – Micro Computed Tomography, 3-dimensional X-ray microscopy, non-invasive | Bruker Corporation
Micro computed tomography is X-ray imaging in 3D, by the same method used in hospital CT scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution.
www.bruker.com/products/x-ray-diffraction-and-elemental-analysis/x-ray-micro-ct.html
Is Laborama ready for 3D X-Ray Microscopy? | insidematters.eu
On 19/02/205, we visited the Laborama Expo 2015 in Groot-Bijgaarden. Having its roots in 1957, this expo is one with a long history and is focused mainly on laboratory equipment and measuring instruments. This 16th edition, with its 121 exhibitors and about 2000 visitors, is a compact expo with a strong offer in analytical chemistry but also the (petro) chemical industry, environment, agro-nutrition, biotechnology, pharmacy, cosmetics, automation and education.
insidematters.eu/blog/laborama-ready-3d-x-ray-microscopy
Kurt's Microscopy Blog | Thoughts on imaging from the director of the NIC@UCSF/QB3
Posted on March 31, 2015 by admin.
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X-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope | Microscopy and Analysis
“Harry, He Likes Beer But Can Not Obtain Food” is the opening line of one of many mnemonics that have been devised to help you recall the first nine of the 118 entries, from hydrogen to ununoctium, in the standard Periodic Table of chemical elements.
www.microscopy-analysis.com/blog/blog-articles/x-ray-microanalysis-electron-microscope
XRM 2014 | 12th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy 2014
XRM 2014, 12th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy 2014, Australia, Melbourne, 26 - 31 October 2014
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The projection x-ray microscope for divergent-beam diffraction
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